Hydrobiologia 451: 11–17, 2001. © 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.
Jellyﬁsh as food
Y-H. Peggy Hsieh1 , Fui-Ming Leong2 & Jack Rudloe3
of Nutrition & Food Science, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, U.S.A. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 2 Perseco Asia Paciﬁc Singapore, Blk 511, Kampong Bahru Road, Unit No 05-03, Keppel Distripark, Singapore 099447 3 GulfSpecimen Marine Laboratories, Inc. P.O. Box 237, Panacea, FL 32346, U.S.A. Key words: jellyﬁsh, ﬁshery, food, health, arthritis
Abstract Jellyﬁsh have been exploited commercially by Chinese as an important food for more than a thousand years. Semidried jellyﬁsh represent a multi-million dollar seafood business in Asia. Traditional processing methods involve a multi-phase processingprocedure using a mixture of salt (NaCl) and alum (AlK[SO4 ]2 · 12 H2 O) to reduce the water content, decrease the pH, and ﬁrm the texture. Processed jellyﬁsh have a special crunchy and crispy texture. They are then desalted in water before preparing for consumption. Interest in utilizing Stomolophus meleagris L. Agassiz, cannonball jellyﬁsh, from the U. S. as food has increased recently because ofhigh consumer demand in Asia. Desalted ready-to-use (RTU) cannonball jellyﬁsh consists of approximately 95% water and 4–5% protein, which provides a very low caloric value. Cannonball jellyﬁsh collagen has shown a suppressing effect on antigeninduced arthritis in laboratory rats. With the great abundance of cannonball jellyﬁsh in the U. S. coastal waters, turning this jellyﬁsh into value-addedproducts could have tremendous environmental and economicbeneﬁts.
Introduction While jellyﬁsh are shunned by swimmers in most places, several species of scyphozoan jellyﬁsh with mild stings are edible. Edible jellyﬁsh are largely estuarine in nature, aggregating around river mouth drainages and primarily caught from the Indian, Northwest Paciﬁc, and Western Central Paciﬁc Oceans by severalcountries including Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and China (Huang, 1988). Among the edible species Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye is the most abundant and important species in the Asian jellyﬁsh ﬁshery which represents a multi milliondollar seafood business in Asia (Omori & Nakano, 2001). China is the ﬁrst country to process jellyﬁsh for human consumption (Morikawa, 1984). Although theChinese have been eating jellyﬁsh for more than a thousand years, the jellyﬁsh industry only recently has become a commercial ﬁshery. Other jellyﬁsh producing countries learned the traditional processing techniques from the northern Chinese with slight modiﬁc-
ation. Processing jellyﬁsh in Asia is a low-cost operation that requires little capital but is labor intensive. Distributions of thejellyﬁsh populations are sporadic and seemingly unpredictable in nature. Meterological conditions, currents, water temperature, pressure, salinity and predation may play a signiﬁcant role in determining the population size (Suelo, 1986). Asian countries are actively developing ﬁsheries management plans in an effort to conserve jellyﬁsh. In both China and Thailand, the government ﬁsheries departmentscontrol the jellyﬁsh season (Rudloe, 1992). During the last several weeks of the season, the governments do not allow catching because the jellyﬁsh are largest and are reproducing. Recently, Australia, India and the U. S. began utilizing their available species to produce jellyﬁsh products for export. Jellyﬁsh enters into commerce from all over the world. However, little information has beenpublished on utilization of jellyﬁsh for human consumption. In the present paper, the processing of edible jellyﬁsh, the nutritional and potential medicinal value of cannonball
12 jellyﬁsh, and the future of jellyﬁsh ﬁshery in the U. S. are brieﬂy addressed. of the cured jellyﬁsh. In China, soda is omitted. Because there are large variations among species, and even with different batches of the...
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