Key terms

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Key terms & Concepts

|Sampling |
|Sampling Bias |Also known as selection bias, an error in choosing participants for a scientific study such|
| |that the results are distorted.|
|Participant Variability |Extent to which a participant shares something that could bias the outcome or study |
|Representative Sample |a relatively small group of participants (a sample) from an entire population of all |
| |possible participants(for example, selecting college students at a couple of colleges from|
| |all college students in the world). |
|Opportunity Sample |It consists of taking the sample from people who are available at the time the study is |
||carried out and fit the criteria your are looking for.  |
|Self-selected sampling |Self selected sampling (or volunteer sampling) consists of participants becoming part of a |
| |study because they volunteer when asked or in response to an advert.  |
|Snow-ball sampling|Recruit participants form friends and family. |
|Random sampling |People are picked from this sample "at random" to participate in the study. It is hoped |
| |that the random sample will be representative of the entire population. ||Stratified sampling |used when the population is composed of several subgroups that may differ in the behavior |
| |or attribute that you are studying. |
|Cluster sampling |used when it is difficult to individually identify every person in asample, and |
| |naturally-occurring groups are available. |
|Purposive sampling |Purposive sampling targets a particular group of people. When the desired population for |
| |the study is rare or very difficult to locateand recruit for a study, |

|Ethics |
|Informed consent |Informed consent is a legal procedure to ensure that a patient, client, and research |
| |participants are aware ofall the potential risks and costs involved in a treatment |
| |or procedure. |
|Deception |Slight lies told to participants so that results are affected the least possible. |
|Debriefing |(after anexperiment) to disclose to the subject the purpose of the experiment and |
| |any reasons for deception or manipulation. |
|Withdrawal form study |Participants have the right to leave the study at any time, and their data can be |
| |withdrawn...
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