Kyoto protocol

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Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC), aimed at fighting global warming. The UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty with the goal of achieving "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climatesystem."[1]
EU-countries like Greece,Spain,Ireland and Sweden have not committed themselves to any reduction while France has committed itself not to expand its emissions (0% reduction) in the internal-EU distribution agreement. This agreement ensures a 8% reduction for the EU-region as a whole in accordance with the Kyoto Protocol.[3] Greenland has only committed itself through Denmark. HoweverGreenland has not committed itself to a reduction towards Denmark. But might do it in the next period.
Overview map Of States obligated by the Kyoto Protocol as of 2010. Green countries = Those of the Annex I countries who are fully obligated (also called Annex II countries). Yellow countries = Annex I countries who only are obligated within some freedom as to their requirements in the protocol. Alsocalled Countries with Economics in Transition (EIT)). Red countries = are not obligated by the Kyoto Protocol. Are either countries who have Non-annex 1 status in the protocol, and thereby are not obligated or countries that have not signed the protocol yet[4]
The Protocol was initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan and entered into force on 16 February 2005. As of July 2010, 191states have signed and ratified the protocol.[5]
Under the Protocol, 37 countries ("Annex I countries") commit themselves to a reduction of four greenhouse gases (GHG) (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride) and two groups of gases (hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons) produced by them, and all member countries give general commitments. Annex I countries agreed to reducetheir collective greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% from the 1990 level. Emission limits do not include emissions by international aviation and shipping, but are in addition to the industrial gases, chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, which are dealt with under the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
The benchmark 1990 emission levels were accepted by the Conference of theParties of UNFCCC (decision 2/CP.3) were the values of "global warming potential" calculated for the IPCC Second Assessment Report.[6] These figures are used for converting the various greenhouse gas emissions into comparable CO2 equivalents (CO2-eq) when computing overall sources and sinks.
The Protocol allows for several "flexible mechanisms", such as emissions trading, the clean developmentmechanism (CDM) and joint implementation to allow Annex I countries to meet their GHG emission limitations by purchasing GHG emission reductions credits from elsewhere, through financial exchanges, projects that reduce emissions in non-Annex I countries, from other Annex I countries, or from annex I countries with excess allowances.
Each Annex I country is required to submit an annual report ofinventories of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from sources and removals from sinks under UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. These countries nominate a person (called a "designated national authority") to create and manage its greenhouse gas inventory. Virtually all of the non-Annex I countries have also established a designated national authority to manage its Kyoto obligations, specifically the"CDM process" that determines which GHG projects they wish to propose for accreditation by the CDM Executive Board.
The USA drew worldwide criticism for failing to adopt the greatest international agreement for the reduction of some greenhouse gases, The Kyoto Protocol, which has been accepted by nearly every other country. This is despite the fact that the USA is by a massive margin the...
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