La hora del planeta

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What is Grammar?
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01/01/2011
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Isis Azucena García Rivera.

What is Grammar?

Grammar is a field of linguistics that involves all the various things that make up the rules of language. Subfields of linguistics that are considered a part of grammar include syntax, phonetics, morphology, and semantics. Grammar is alsoused as a term to refer to the prescriptive rules of a given language, which may change over time or be open to debate.

Grammar may be separated into two common broad categories: descriptive and prescriptive. Both views of grammar are in wide use, although in general, linguists tend towards a descriptive approach to grammar, while people teaching a specific language — such as english — mighttend towards a more prescriptive approach. Usually, there is a bit of give and take in any approach, with a prescriptivist being at least somewhat descriptive, and a descriptivist having some prescriptivist tendencies.

A descriptive grammar tries to look at the grammar of any spoken language or dialect as it actually exists, judging whether a sentence is grammatical or not based on the rules ofthe speech group in which it is spoken, rather than an arbitrary set of rules. For example, in many speech communities, a sentence such as, "he done got thrown off the horse," would be entirely grammatical, and an entire set of rules of grammar can be deduced that explain why that formation is grammatical. In another speech community, however, this sentence might be considered ungrammatical, whilea version such as, "him isa throwned Offa horse," would be the grammatical version. In yet another speech community, both would be considered ungrammatical, with only a version such as, "he was thrown off of the horse," being considered acceptable.

A prescriptive grammar looks at the norms of speech as given by authoritative sources, such as an upper-class or academic subculture, and createsstrict rules by which all speech within that language must abide to be considered grammatical. Few linguists take a prescriptive approach to grammar in the modern age, preferring to describe language as it exists in a given speech community. Many teachers, grammar mavens, and pedagogues in general still have a prescriptive approach towards grammar, however, holding to standardized rules as being theonly proper way to speak.

Prescriptive grammar is also used to some extent in teaching a language to non-native speakers. When teaching english, for example, it can be useful to employ a "standard" form of english as a baseline to teach from, to help reduce confusion among students. Once the language has been acquired, of course, a less-prescriptive approach will necessarily take over, as thenon-native speaker learns regional rules and new dialects that may not conform to the prescriptive grammar he or she originally learned Grammar is the structural foundation of our ability to express ourselves. The more we are aware of how it works, the more we can monitor the meaning and effectiveness of the way we and others use language. It can help foster precision, detect ambiguity, andexploit the richness of expression available in English. And it can help everyone--not only teachers of English, but teachers of anything, for all teaching is ultimately a matter of getting to grips with meaning.

Que es la gramatica?

La Gramática es un campo de la lingüística que involucra a todas las cosas que conforman las reglas del lenguaje. Subcampos de la lingüística que se consideran partede la gramática son la sintaxis, la fonética, la morfología y la semántica. La gramática es también usado como un término para referirse a las normas preceptivas de una lengua dada, que puede cambiar con el tiempo o estar abierto al debate

Gramaticales pueden ser separados en dos categorías comunes generales: descriptiva y prescriptiva. Ambos puntos de vista de la gramática son de uso...
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