The Milk: History, Consumption, Production, and Composition
Milk is as ancient as mankind itself, as it is the substance created to feed the mammalian infant. All species of mammals, from man to whales, produce milk for this purpose. Many centuries ago, perhaps as early as 6000-8000 BC, ancient man learned to domesticate species of animals for theprovision of milk to be consumed by them. These included cows (genus Bos), buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels, all of which are still used in various parts of the world for the production of milk for human consumption.
Technological advances have only come about very recently in the history of milk consumption, and our generations will be the ones credited for having turned milk processingfrom an art to a science. The availability and distribution of milk and milk products today in the modern world is a blend of the centuries old knowledge of traditional milk products with the application of modern science and technology.
The role of milk in the traditional diet has varied greatly in different regions of the world. The tropical countries have not been traditional milkconsumers, whereas the more northern regions of the world, Europe (especially Scandinavia) and North America, have traditionally consumed far more milk and milk products in their diet. In tropical countries where high temperatures and lack of refrigeration has led to the inability to produce and store fresh milk, milk has traditionally been preserved through means other thanrefrigeration, including immediate consumption of warm milk after milking, by boiling milk, or by conversion into more stable products such as fermented milks.
2. Read glossary 1. How do you say these words in your language?
|GLOSSARY 1 |
|Milk, the white liquid produced by _________, goats and some other animals as food for their young and used as a drink by humans. |
|Fluid, (technical) that can flow freely, as gases and ___________ do: a fluid consistency|
|Processed, to treat raw material, ____________, etc. in order to change it, preserve it, etc.: Most of the food we buy is processed in some way. |
|[pic]processed cheese [pic]I sent three rolls of film away to be processed. |
|Products, thing that is grown or_______________, usually for sale: dairy / meat / pharmaceutical, etc. products [pic]investment in product |
|development [pic]to launch a new product on to the market. |
|Cheese, a ____________ of food made from milk that can be either soft or hard and is usually white or yellow in colour; a particular type of this|
|food: Cheddar cheese [pic]goat’s cheese (= made from the milk of a goat) [pic]a cheese sandwich / salad [pic]a chunk / piece / slice of cheese |
|[pic]a selection of French cheeses .|
|Preservation, the act of keeping sth in its original state or in good _________________: building / environmental / food preservation. |