La petroquimica

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UNIDAD TEMÁTICA 1
PRODUCTOS DE REFINERIA COMPOSICION Y ESPECIFICACIONES

1.1 Elaboración del petróleo y sus fracciones
1.2 Fraccionamiento del crudo
1.3 El craqueo
1.3.1 Elcraqueo térmico
1.3.2 El craqueo térmico en la practica
1.3.3 El craqueo catalítico
1.3.4 EI craqueo catalítico en la práctica

1.4 La refinación
1.4.1 La refinación química
1.4.2 La refinaciónfísica
1.4.3 Hidrorefinación

1.2.Fraccionamiento del crudo

DOCUMENTO: libro
LIBRO: chemistry of petrochemical processes
TEMA: PHYSICALSEPARATION PROCESSES

UBICACIÓN: pag. 49 hasta 52DESCRIPCION
ATMOSPHERIC DISTILLATION
Atmospheric distillation separates the crude oil complex mixture intodifferent fractions with relatively narrow boiling ranges. In general, sep-
aration of a mixture into fractions is based primarily on the difference in
theboiling points of the components. In atmospheric distillation units,
one or more fractionating columns are used.
Distilling a crude oil starts by preheating the feed byexchange with
the hot product streams. The feed is further heated to about 320°C as it
passes through the heater pipe (pipe still heater).
The hot feed enters thefractionator, which normally contains 30–50
fractionation trays. Steam is introduced at the bottom of the fractionator
to strip off light components. The efficiency ofseparation is a function of
the number of theoretical plates of the fractionating tower and the reflux
ratio. Reflux is provided by condensing part of the tower overheadvapors. Reflux ratio is the ratio of vapors condensing back to the still to
vapors condensing out of the still (distillate). The higher the reflux ratio,
the...
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