La pscicoligia moderna

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Grammar Part

Cohesive Devices

Coherent texts contain what were called text forming devices. These are words and phrases that enable the writer or speaker to establish relationships across sentence or utterance boundaries , and that help to tie the sentences in a text together .


Anaphoric reference points the reader or listener backwards to a previously mentioned entity ,process or state of affairs .

Cataphoric reference points the reader or listener forward –It draws us further into the text in order to identify the elements to which the reference items refer.

Personal ,demonstrative and comparative reference

Personal reference
Personal reference items are expressed through pronouns and determiners . They serve to identify individuals and objects thatare named at some point in the text.

E.G: Mikhail Gorbachev didn’t have to change the world . He could have chosen to rule much as his predecessors did.

Demonstrative reference
Demonstrative reference is expressed through determiners and adverbs. These items can represent a single word or phrase , or much longer chunks of text .

E.G: Gorbachev could have become a cautious modernizer inthe Chinese fashion , promoting economic reform and sponsoring new technology while holding firm against political change . THIS did not happen .

Comparative reference
Comparative reference is expressed through adjectives and adverbs and serves to compare items within a text in terms of identify or similarity .

E.G: Would you like THESE seats?
No , as matter of fact ,. I´d likeTHE OTHER seats .

Substitution and Ellipsis

There are three types of substitution –NOMINAL ,VERBAL AND CLAUSAL.

Nominal Substitution

There are some new TENNIS BALLS in the bag. These ONES lost their bounce .

Verbal Substitution

Annie says you DRINK TOO MUCH
So DO you !

Clausal Substitution

I think SO .


Ellipsis occurswhen essential structural element is omitted from a sentence or clause and can only be recovered by referring to an element in the preceding text . As with substitution , there are three types of ellipsis , NOMINAL , VERBAL AND CLAUSAL .

Nominal Ellipsis

My kids play an awful lot of sport. Both are incredibly energetic.

Verbal Ellipsis

Have you been working?
Yes , I have ( I have beenworking)

Clausal Ellipsis

Why ´d you only set three places? Paul´s staying for dinner .Isn´t he?
Is he ? He didn’t tell me .

Conjunction .


I´m afraid I´ll be home late tonight .HOWEVER,I won´t have to go in until late tomorrow.

I quite like being chatted up when I´m sitting in a bar having a drink. ON THE OTHER HAND, I hate it if ….you know …if the guy starts to makea nuisance of himself.

However and on the other had are adversative because the information in the second sentence of each text moderates or qualifies the information in the first .

From a marketing viewpoint , the popular tabloid encourages the reader to read the whole page instead of choosing stories .AND isn’t that what any publisher wants?

Brick tea is a blendthat has been compressed into a cake . It is taken mainly by the minority groups in China . FIRST , it is ground to a dust. THEN it is usually cooked in milk .

In this case the relationship is one of cause and consequence .

Lexical cohesion
Lexical cohesion occurs when two words in a text are semantically related in some way .In other words , they are related in items of their meaning .Reiteration
Reiteration includes repetition ,synonym ,superordinate and general word .

What we lack in a NEWSPAPER is what we should get. In a word , a popular NEWSPAPER may be the winning ticket.

You could try reversing the car up the SLOPE. The INCLINE isn’t al that steep.

PNEUMONIA has arrived with the cold and wet conditions .THE ILLNESS is...
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