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Martina Morejón
Wednesday, February 16, 2011

The effect of the number of ingredients on the amount of waffles
(According to Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D) “The limiting reactant is a reactant in a chemical reaction that determines the amount of product produced.” This means that there is a reactant in a chemical reaction that limits the amount of product that can befound. This reactant will stop when all the limiting reactant is consumed. For example (according to Michael Blaber:) “If you are a chef preparing a breakfast for a group of people, and are planning to cook French toast. You make French toast the way you have always made it: one egg for every three slices of toast. You never waiver from this recipe, because the French toast will turn out to beeither too soggy or too dry (arguably, you are anal retentive). There are 8 eggs and 30 slices of bread in the pantry. Thus, you conclude that you will be able to make 24 slices of French toast and not one slices more”. This is a perfect example for limiting reactants, since the substance is stoichiometrically limiting the amount of product that can be formed.
Objective: How can I know whichingredient is the limiting reactant?

Hypothesis: If we double the ingredients without changing the amount of milk, then we will have the same amount of waffles.

Experimental design
Dependent variable | Independent variable | Constants | Control |
Amount of waffles | Limiting reactant | Amount of milk | One batch |

First Batch
* 1 cups of flour
* 1 cups ofmilk
* 2 spoons full of butter
* 1 egg
* 1 teaspoon of Royal (baking powder)
* 1 small Pinch of salt
* 1 teaspoon of sugar
* 1 pinches of cinnamon
* 1 waffle maker
* Yields: 10 waffles

Second Batch
* 2 cups of flour
* 1 cups of milk
* 4 spoons full of butter
* 2 eggs
* 2 teaspoons of Royal (baking powder)
* 2 small pinch of salt
* 5teaspoons of sugar
* 2 pinches of cinnamon
* 1 waffle maker

1. Split up into two groups
2. Everyone should start with the ingredients from batch 1.
3. Mix up the dry components of the recipe and sift these together (flour, salt, baking powder, cinnamon).
4. Mix up the liquid and sugar components of the recipe (eggs, sugar, butter and milk).
5. Mix up bothmixes slowly.
6. Make your waffles in the waffle maker.
7. Count how many waffles you make.
8. Calculate the percent yield of the recipe.
9. Calculate the amount of waffles you can make with the second batch if you use all the ingredients.
10. Determine the limiting reactant. (Limiting ingredient- the one that will make the least amount of waffles.)
11. What is the maximumnumber of waffles that can be produced from batch 2?
12. Make your second batch taking the limiting reactant into account (here you may include bananas/ apples or chocolate chips into the mix.
13. Calculate the percent yield of the second batch with the maximum yield (not taking the limiting reactant into account), and the minimum yield (taking the limiting reactant into account).
14.Make sure you include these questions in your discussion.
15. Remember to follow the lab report format.
16. You can do your research on the limiting reactant and it’s applications in different industries.

Results and analysis
Batch 1 | * Theoretical: 10waffles * Actual: 4waffles | (4 / 10) * 100 = 40 % Yield |
Batch 2 | * Theoretical: 20 waffles * Actual: 15waffles | (16 / 20) * 100 = 80 % Yield |

The percent yield is the amount obtained from a reaction divided by the amount that can possibly be obtained times 100. In these calculations above, we can see that in batch 1 the imaginary amount of product that is likely to form that is the theoretical yield that is 10 waffles. Divided by the actual yield that is 4 waffles that is the real...
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