• ethics of unacknowledged recording
• 'danger of death'
Language and Social Stratiﬁcation
Style, Class, Ethnicity, andGender
• • • •
Reading Style Word Lists
• informant asked to read a passage • containing the forms with the target sounds • like toe and tore
LIN103 Language,Culture, and Society 17/07/05
Style and Class Distribution of Postvocalic /r/ in New York City
/r/ in New York City
R-Pronunciation in New York CitySocio-Economic Class 6-8
•! /r/ use increases as formality increases in all classes •! /r/ use increases as class index increases •! LMC /r/ index 'crossover' in formal styles ashypercorrection
R-Pronunciation in New York City
Socio-Economic Class 6-8
9 4-5 2-3 1 0
9 4-5 2-3 1 0
LIN103 Language, Culture, and Society17/07/05
LIN103 Language, Culture, and Society
Markers and Indicators
cot/caught Merger in North America
• speakers aware in some wayof social value (positive or negative) of values of the variable • NYC postvocalic /r/ and LMC hypercorrection • Australian diphthongs
• may be social correlates, butno evidence that speakers recognise any social 'value'
• cot/caught merger in North America
• [!] to ["] in sit, etc.
LIN103 Language, Culture, and Society 17/07/05 5 LIN103 Language, Culture,and Society 17/07/05 6
Australian English Diphthongs
mate hoe buy how
Sharp stratiﬁcation is to sociolinguists what isogloss bundles are to dialectologists....