Lazlo biro

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László Bíró (by-row) invented the now-ubiquitous ballpoint pen. Previously, writers used either pens dipped in inkwells or fountain pens, with interior inkreservoirs, but either method often led to splotchy documents and stained fingers. Bíró was always a tinkerer, and in addition to his pen he held patents for asteam-powered washing machine and an automatic transmission for cars, but he was working as a reporter when he noticed that ink from inkwells smudged easily and took severalminutes to dry, while ink used to print newspapers dried much quicker. He tried using press ink in his fountain pen, but it was too viscous and would not flowproperly. With help from his brother, a chemist, the ink was altered, and Bíró added a tiny rolling ball in a socket at the pen's tip. The action of rolling the ballacross paper draws ink and regulates its flow, making spills and splotches a rare occurrence.

Jewish, he fled his homeland to escape growing anti-Semitism, andpatented his invention in Paris in 1938. He then settled in Argentina, where he opened Biro Pens of Argentina in 1940 to manufacture the pens. For several years,ballpoint pens were luxury items, selling for $12.50 each in department stores, but problems with both the ink and manufacturing processes kept the company struggling. In1945 Bíró sold his patent rights to a Frenchman, Marcel Bich (pronounced Bic), whose Bic pens made both Bich and Bíró millionaires, thanks to low-priced pens that"write first time, every time." Bíró was a high school classmate of Dennis Gabor. In many English-speaking nations, ballpoint pens are still commonly called "biros."
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