Lca of pv modules

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Assessment of the Generations of Photovoltaic Modules through Nanotechnology Introduction during their Life Cycle

Master Thesis in Production Engineering - Mechanical & Process Engineering;



Master Thesis

Photovoltaic modules

Abstract 
During the last year the electricity production by renewable energy is growing and growing in the European Union. The renewable energyproduces more than the 15% of the total electricity consumption in the EU and the photovoltaic energy is growing around 30% year per year since 2007. In spite of this growth the electricity production by photovoltaic modules is less the 2% of the all renewable energy. However the photovoltaic energy may be an important energy source in the following year. From this point this projects want to evaluatethe different available modules in function of the three available generations of photovoltaic modules. For the assessment the project has decided to evaluate the most used modules for the first and the second generation because these technologies are used in the actual power plants. mc-Si modules for the first generation and CdTe Thin Film module for the second generation. For the thirdgeneration, currently in research and development, the project wants to evaluate the introduction of the nanotechnology in the photovoltaic energy and has decided to evaluate the photovoltaic modules made from CdSe and using quantum dots. The assessment evaluates the modules during their life cycle and wants to evaluate the different between the technologies and the generation in some field. During theproduction and use phase the project evaluates the primary energy required for manufacture the modules, the electricity production, the energy pay-back time and the main environmental impacts. During the end of life phase the project evaluates the recycle process and also the main initiatives to recycle the modules. At the end of the assessment the project obtains the conclusion that throughthe photovoltaic generation the modules has decreased the environmental impacts, the primary energy required and the electricity production has increased. This fact has happened specially with the introduction of the nanotechnology that provide modules with high efficiency and with less manufacture cost, however, the modules with nanotechnology has increased the emissions of the heavy metals andthere are not already any recycle process for this new technology, this is because the modules with nanotechnology are currently in research and development process.

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Master Thesis

Photovoltaic modules

Master Thesis

Photovoltaic modules

Index 
Abstract................................................................................................................................... 2  Affidavit ................................................................................................................................... 3  Index of Figures ...................................................................................................................... 6  Index of Tables....................................................................................................................... 8  Index of Equations ................................................................................................................ 10  1.  Introduction .................................................................................................................... 11  2.  Goal and Scope............................................................................................................. 11  3.  Previous studies ............................................................................................................ 12  4.  Justification .................................................................................................................... 12  4.1.  4.2.  Choice of technology for the first and the second generation...
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