The Multiple Intelligences - Dr. Howard Gardner
This language-learning theory states that each of us individually is “smart” in different ways in nine categories. These ninecategories or areas of intelligence are currently defined as: Visual, verbal, logical, musical, bodily, inter-personal, intra-personal, naturalist, and spiritual.
Gardner theorized that we all haveintelligence in each of these areas although developed to different degrees in each person, making us all the more unique.
Communicative Approach - Robert Langs
It focuses on the communicativeskills of language: reading, writing, listening and speaking, almost exclusively. Grammar and language structure are taught and learned “in context”, that is to say by using the language and not bymemorization of tables, conjugations and grammar rules. The communicative method features extensive use of dialogue practice, speech and substitution drills, and a variety of listening comprehensionactivities.
Total Physical Response - Dr. James J. Asher
It is often incorporated in classes with young learners. Why? It’s because this method is based on linking physical movement with languageacquisition- from responding to a parent's voice to following directions for physical movement.
Grammar Translation Method - Franz Boas and Otto Jesperson
Using a book, short story, article or selectedreading passage, key grammar and lexis are defined using footnotes or a listing of grammar points and definitions at the bottom of the reading page. Language learners are prompted to memorize grammarrules, vocabulary lists and verb conjugations in order to “decipher” a written text or passage. This method has some effectiveness but is tedious, repetitive, and boring for most foreign languagelearners.
European Direct Method –
This method stresses delivery of specialized “lesson types” including: reading, writing, grammar and function, listening comprehension, pronunciation and video to...