Learning strategies

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Language Learning Strategies in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching
Research into language learning strategies began in the 1960s. Particularly, developments in cognitive psychology influencedmuch of the research done on language learning strategies. In most of the research on language learning strategies, the primary concern has been on "identifying what good language learners report theydo to learn a second or foreign language, or, in some cases, are observed doing while learning a second or foreign language."
The term language learning strategy has been defined by many researchers.Wenden and Rubin define learning strategies as "... any sets of operations, steps, plans, routines used by the learner to facilitate the obtaining, storage, retrieval, and use of information." FaerchClaus and Casper stress that a learning strategy is "an attempt to develop linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in the target language." All language learners use language learning strategieseither consciously or unconsciously when processing new information and performing tasks in the language classroom. Since language classroom is like a problem-solving environment in which languagelearners are likely to face new input and difficult tasks given by their instructors, learners' attempts to find the quickest or easiest way to do what is required,-------------------------------------------------
Taxonomy of Language Learning Strategies
Language Learning Strategies have been classified by many scholars (Rubin's (1987), Oxford's(1990), O'Malley's (1985), Stern's (1992) and Cohen (2006). Their classifications reflect more or less the same categorizations of language learning strategies without any radical changes.(See chart)Rubin makes the distinction between strategies contributing directly to learning and those contributing indirectly to learning. According to Rubin, there are three types of strategies used by learners...
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