Leininger's theory

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Presentation Grand Theory
Madeline Leininger: Culture Care Theory

Presentation Grand Theory
Madeline Leininger: Culture Care Theory
Madeleine Leininger was born in Sutton, Nebraska. In 1948, she received her diploma in nursing from St. Anthony’s School of Nursing in Denver, Colorado. In 1950, she earned a B.S. from St. Scholastica (Benedictine College) in Atchison, Kansas, and in 1954earned an M.S. in psychiatric and mental health nursing from the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. In 1965, she was awarded a Ph.D. in cultural and social anthropology from the University of Washington, Seattle.
Key Points
Leininger bases her theory on transcultural nursing, a learned branch of nursing that focuses on the comparative study and analysis of cultures as they applyto nursing and health–illness practices, beliefs, and values.
The central purpose of the theory is to discover and explain diverse and universal culturally based care factors influencing the health, well-being, illness, or death of individuals or groups. The purpose and goal of the theory is to use research findings to provide culturally congruent, safe, and meaningful care to clients of diverseor similar cultures.
The fundamental aspects of Leininger’s theory are culture, care, cultural care, world view, and folk health or well-being systems.
Culture refers to learned, shared, and transmitted values, beliefs, norms, and life ways of a specific individual or group that guide their thinking, decisions, actions, and patterned ways of living.
Guides thinking, decisions, and actions inspecific ways.
Provides the basis for cultural values, which identify preferred ways of acting or thinking; these values are usually held for a long time and help guide decision making in the culture.
Care refers to assisting, supporting, or enabling behaviors that ease or improve a person’s condition.
Is essential for a person’s survival, development, and ability to deal with life’s events.Has different meanings in different cultures, which can be determinate by examining the group’s view of the world, social structure, and language.
Cultural care refers to multiple aspects of culture that influence and allow a person or group to improve their human condition or to deal with illness or death.

Can be diverse (different meanings, patterns, values, beliefs, or symbols of careindicate of health for a specific culture, such as the role of the sick person) or universal (commonalities or similarities in meanings patterns, values, beliefs, or symbols of care for different cultures).
Is universal, but the actions, expressions, patterns, life-styles, and meanings of care may be different; knowledge of cultural diversity is essential for nursing to provide appropriate care toclients, families, and communities.
Worldview refers to the way people tend to look at the world or universe in creating a personal view of what life is about.
Consists of social structure (organizational factors of a particular culture, such as religion, economics, and education, and how these factors give meaning and order to the culture) and environmental context (an event, situation, orexperience – such as social interaction, emotion, or physical elemnt- that gives meaning to human expressions)
Folk health or well-being systems refer to care or care practices that have special meaning in the culture; these practices are used to heal or assist people in the home or community.
Are supplemented by professional health systems that operate the cultures.
Leininger identifies three modes ofnursing actions and decisions in her theory.
Cultural care preservation or maintenance refers to nursing care activities that help people of particular cultures to retain and use core cultural care values related to healthcare concerns or conditions.
Cultural care accommodation or negotiation refers to creative nursing actions that help people of a particular culture adapt to or negotiate...
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