Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics
This outstanding multi-volume series covers all the major subdisciplines within linguistics today and, when complete, will offer a comprehensive survey of linguistics as a whole. Already published: The Handbook of Child Language Edited by Paul Fletcher and Brian MacWhinney TheHandbook of Phonological Theory Edited by John A. Goldsmith The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory Edited by Shalom Lappin The Handbook of Sociolinguistics Edited by Florian Coulmas The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences, 2nd Edition Edited by William J. Hardcastle and John Laver The Handbook of Morphology Edited by Andrew Spencer and Arnold Zwicky The Handbook of Japanese Linguistics Edited byNatsuko Tsujimura The Handbook of Linguistics Edited by Mark Aronoff and Janie Rees-Miller The Handbook of Contemporary Syntactic Theory Edited by Mark Baltin and Chris Collins The Handbook of Discourse Analysis Edited by Deborah Schiffrin, Deborah Tannen, and Heidi E. Hamilton The Handbook of Language Variation and Change Edited by J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes TheHandbook of Historical Linguistics Edited by Brian D. Joseph and Richard D. Janda The Handbook of Language and Gender Edited by Janet Holmes and Miriam Meyerhoff The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition Edited by Catherine J. Doughty and Michael H. Long The Handbook of Bilingualism Edited by Tej K. Bhatia and William C. Ritchie The Handbook of Pragmatics Edited by Laurence R. Horn and Gregory Ward TheHandbook of Applied Linguistics Edited by Alan Davies and Catherine Elder The Handbook of Speech Perception Edited by David B. Pisoni and Robert E. Remez The Blackwell Companion to Syntax, Volumes I–V Edited by Martin Everaert and Henk van Riemsdijk The Handbook of the History of English Edited by Ans van Kemenade and Bettelou Los The Handbook of English Linguistics Edited by Bas Aarts and AprilMcMahon The Handbook of World Englishes Edited by Braj B. Kachru, Yamuna Kachru, and Cecil L. Nelson The Handbook of Educational Linguistics Edited by Bernard Spolsky and Francis M. Hult The Handbook of Clinical Linguistics Edited by Martin J. Ball, Michael R. Perkins, Nicole Müller, and Sara Howard The Handbook of Pidgin and Creole Studies Edited by Silvia Kouwenberg and John Victor Singler TheHandbook of Language Teaching Edited by Michael H. Long and Catherine J. Doughty The Handbook of Language Contact Edited by Raymond Hickey The Handbook of Language and Speech Disorders Edited by Jack S. Damico, Nicole Müller, and Martin J. Ball The Handbook of Computational Linguistics Edited by Alexander Clark, Chris Fox, and Shalom Lappin The Handbook of Language and Globalization Edited byNikolas Coupland
The Handbook of Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing
Alexander Clark, Chris Fox, and Shalom Lappin
A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication
This edition ﬁrst published 2010 c 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd except for editorial material and organization c 2010 Alexander Clark, Chris Fox, and Shalom Lappin Blackwell Publishing was acquired byJohn Wiley & Sons in February 2007. Blackwell’s publishing program has been merged with Wiley’s global Scientiﬁc, Technical, and Medical business to form Wiley-Blackwell. Registered Ofﬁce John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, United Kingdom Editorial Ofﬁces 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UK The Atrium,Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK For details of our global editorial ofﬁces, for customer services, and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.wiley.com/wiley-blackwell. The right of Alexander Clark, Chris Fox, and Shalom Lappin to be identiﬁed as the authors of the editorial material in...