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Deforestation
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Deforestation (disambiguation).

Jungle burned for agriculture in southern Mexico.

Deforestation in the Gran Chaco, Paraguay

Deforestation and increased road-building in the Amazon Rainforest are a significant concern because of increased human encroachment uponwild areas, increased resource extraction and further threats to biodiversity.
Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a nonforest use.[1] Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use.
The term deforestation is often misused to describe any activity where all trees in an area are removed.However in temperate mesic climates, the removal of all trees in an area—in conformance with sustainable forestry practices—is correctly described as regeneration harvest.[2] In temperate mesic climates, natural regeneration of forest stands often will not occur in the absence of disturbance, whether natural or anthropogenic.[3] Furthermore, biodiversity after regeneration harvest often mimics thatfound after natural disturbance, including biodiversity loss after naturally occurring rainforest destruction.[4][5]
Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees or derived charcoal are used as, or sold, for fuel or as timber, while cleared land is used aspasture for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted indamage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland.
Disregard or ignorance of intrinsic value, lack of ascribed value, lax forest management and deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that allow deforestation tooccur on a large scale. In many countries, deforestation, both naturally occurring and human induced, is an ongoing issue. Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record.[4]

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IUCN Red List Endangeredspecies
IUCN Red List refers to a specific category of threatened species, and may include critically endangered species. IUCN Red List of Threatened Speciesuses the term endangered species as a specific category of imperilment, rather than as a general term. Under the IUCN Categories and Criteria,endangered species is between critically endangered and vulnerable. Also critically endangered speciesmay also be counted as endangered species and fill all the criteria
The more general term used by the IUCN for species at risk of extinction is threatened species, which also includes the less-at-risk category of vulnerable species together with endangered and critically endangered. IUCN categories include:
* Extinct: Examples: Javan Tiger, Thylacine, Dodo, Passenger Pigeon, Caribbean MonkSeal, Steller's Sea Cow, Aurochs, Elephant Bird, Woolly Mammoth, Dusky Seaside Sparrow
* Extinct in the wild: captive individuals survive, but there is no free-living, natural population. Examples: Hawaiian Crow, Wyoming Toad, Socorro Dove,Red-tailed Black Shark, Scimitar Oryx, Catarina Pupfish
* Critically endangered: faces an extremely high risk of extinction in the immediate future.Examples: Mountain Gorilla, Bactrian Camel, Ethiopian Wolf, Saiga, Takhi, Iberian Lynx, Kakapo, Arakan Forest Turtle, Sumatran Rhinoceros, Javan Rhino, Brazilian Merganser, Axolotl, Leatherback Sea Turtle, Northern White Rhinoceros, Gharial,Vaquita, Philippine Eagle, Brown Spider Monkey, California Condor, Island Fox, Black Rhinoceros, Chinese Alligator, Sumatran Orangutan, Asiatic Cheetah, African...
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