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Parasite contamination of soil in households of a Mexican rural community endemic for neurocysticercosis
M. Huerta a,c, R. Avila b, H.I. Jim´nez b, R. D´ a, J. D´ c, M.E. D´ Huerta a, e ıaz ıaz ıaz d e f a,c o M.Hern´ndez , J.J. Martinez , T. Garate , E. G´mez , T. Abad a, a d g d,∗ G. Fragoso , A. Fleury , E. Sciutto
Facultad de Medicina, Benem´rita Universidad Aut´noma de Puebla, 13 Sur No. 2702, e o Col. Volcanes, Puebla, Pue. Mexico b Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Benem´rita Universidad Aut´noma de Puebla, 13 Sur No. 2702, e o Col. Volcanes, Puebla, Pue. Mexico c Unidad MedicoFamiliar 57 IMSS, Puebla, Mexico d Instituto de Investigaciones Biom´dicas, Universidad Nacional Aut´noma de M´xico, Apartado 70228, e o e 04510 M´xico D.F., Mexico e e Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Aut´noma de M´xico, o e Circuito Escolar Exterior s/n, 04510 M´xico D.F., Mexico e f Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Crta.Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain g Instituto Nacional de Neurolog´ y Neurocirug´ Insurgentes Sur 3877, Col. A Fama, Delegaci´n Tlalpan, ıa ıa, o 14269 M´xico D.F., Mexico e Received 2 July 2006; received in revised form 21 December 2007; accepted 21 December 2007
Neurocysticercosis; Taenia; Parasitic diseases; Soil microbiology; Rural communities; Mexico
Summary Highneurocysticercosis (NC) prevalence was recently determined by a computed tomography (CT) scan study in the community of Tepetzitzintla, State of Puebla, Mexico. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the magnitude of fecal and parasite contamination by Taenia spp. in the soil of households of this community during the four seasons of the year. The toilet, backyard, kitchen, washboard, watercontainers and corrals of 14 to 26 households were sampled during each season. High Taenia spp. egg intensity was found in 24.2% of the sampled areas. The highest percentage was detected in Spring and the lowest in Summer. Signiﬁcantly higher levels of Taenia spp. eggs were present in kitchen soil samples. A signiﬁcant correlation was found between the presence of Taenia spp. eggs in householdsoil during the Summer, and NC diagnoses of the inhabitants by CT scan. Coproparasitological examinations and anticysticercal antibodies were determined in a cohort of inhabitants of the sampled households. Antibody levels and coproparasitological results were not associated with NC. Overall, these
Corresponding author. Tel.: +52 55 5622 3153; fax: +52 55 5622 3369. E-mail address:firstname.lastname@example.org (E. Sciutto)
0035-9203/$ — see front matter © 2008 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2007.12.009
Parasite contamination of soil in Mexican households
results illustrate the high degree of fecal contamination of potential risk to human health in rural communities and could be of use forcontrol programmes. © 2008 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In Mexico, as in other endemic countries, soil contamination with Taenia solium eggs is of special interest considering the high prevalence of pig and human cysticercosis reported in rural communities, and the great impact of this disease on human health.Taenia solium eggs are deposited in the environment through defecation by humans, the only known deﬁnitive hosts. Human infection with T. solium occurs by accidental ingestion of eggs in soil, contaminated vegetables, water, etc. In two independent computed tomography (CT) scan epidemiological studies performed in two endemic rural communities, 9.1% of asymptomatic neurocysticercosis (NC) cases...