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Types of Leadership
♦ Autocratic ♦ Eclectic (situational) ♦ Laissez-faire ♦ Unknown


Leadership Defined
♦ Leadership is the ability and the willingness

to influence others so that they respond willingly. James G. Clawson LEVEL 3 LEADERSHIP


More on Leadership Challenges
♦ Any culture—national, bureaucratic, or

organizational—emerges out of its particular history,geography, technology, and philosophy. No two are alike.
• • • Warren Bennis WHY LEADERS CAN’T LEAD


Research Approaches to Leadership
♦ Four distinct approaches: – Trait approach
• Emphasizes the personal attributes of the leader • Assumes that some are born with elusive traits

– Behavior approach
• Examines the nature of managerial work • Compares behavior of effective and ineffectiveleaders


Research Approaches (con’t)
– Power-influence approach
• Examines influence processes between leaders and followers • Analyzes power acquisition by subunits or coalitions

– Situational approach
• Treats managerial behavior as the result of the type of organization or position • Attempts to identify how different behavior patterns will be effective in different situations •Source: LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS Gary Yukl


Integrating Framework/Leadership
! Includes ! Leader power ! Leader traits ! Leader behavior ! Situational variables ! Intervening variables ! Success criteria
! Leadership in Organizations ! G. Yukl


Management vs. Leadership
♦ Characteristics of

Transactional Leadership
– Issued rewards in return for compliance – Made few changes– Managed what they found – Left things much as they were and moved on


Management vs Leadership (con’t)
♦ Characteristics of

Transformational Leadership
– Behavioral processcan be learned – Systemic process – Capacity to move resources from areas of lesser to greater productivity – Found at all organizational levels

Transformational Leadership
New forms of leadership are:-America’s scarcest natural resource -Necessary for revitalization in organizations and institutions -Needed to create a new vision -Prerequisite to institutionalizing change


Transformational Leadership (con’t)
♦ Today’s leadership

challenges center around:
– Change – Innovation – Entrepreneurship Source: The Transformational Leader, Tichy & Devanna


Lecture 2, Slide 1 Before wecontinue our discussion of emerging leadership models and concentrate on the focus of this early part of the course, let’s briefly discuss four very general types of leadership, which are identified primarily by the definition of the term: What is an autocratic leadership style? Can you think of a world government leader who is autocratic in the operation of his/her office? What type of governmentstructure immediately comes to mind? Why is this style no longer effective? What global changes have gradually resulted in the inability to function in an autocratic manner, whether the environment is governmental, a private corporation, an educational institution or a non-profit setting? Think about the rapid growth of technology, methods of communication around the world—as technology expandsand reaches remote locations throughout the world, people have more and more information available to them and it becomes increasingly difficult to rule or govern or lead by intimidation.


One statement you will hear (or see) repeatedly during this course is that INFORMATION IS POWER—as information is more and more available to larger numbers of the population, it becomes increasinglydifficult to control by force or by position—there is good and bad news connected to this evolving environment of more self control. There is a much greater need for individuals at all levels of organizations to solve problems quickly and to think creatively. The older management “factory” model, where the majority of the decisions were made by only the top of the organizational pyramid are no...