Sigmund Freud- Father of psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis- method of understanding mental life
Unconscious – part of the mind beyond consciousness
Id Ego- Id: The id doesn't care about reality, about the needs of anyone else, only its own satisfaction. E.g.: Babies are not considerate of their parents' wishes.
Ego: The ego is based on the reality principle. The egounderstands that other people have needs and desires and that sometimes being impulsive or selfish can hurt us in the long run. It’s the ego's job to meet the needs of the id, while taking into consideration the reality of the situation.
Super Ego- The moral part of us and develops due to the moral and ethical restraints placed on us by our caregivers. Many equate the superego with the conscience as itdictates our belief of right and wrong.
Dreams- something hoped for, idle hope, vague state of preoccupation with thoughts or fantasies, “A dream is a microscope through which we look at the hidden occurrences in our soul.” E.F.
Desire- wish for something, request something, craving
Freud s Iceberg Metaphor- the psyche as like an iceberg; only the upper 10% of it is visible (i.e.conscious); the rest is submerged and unseen (unconscious).
Pleasure Principle- all behaviour is motivated by the desire to feel pleasure. That motivation is organized and directed by two instincts: sexuality and aggression.
Reality Principle- seeks to experience satisfaction via hallucinations of a memory of prior satisfaction but the subject soon discovers that hallucinating does not relieve hisneeds, and is thus forced "to form a conception of the real circumstances in the external world."
Relationship between pleasure principle and reality principle- The oppose each other. Desire for immediate gratification vs. the deferral of that gratification
Free associations- technique, psychoanalytic patients are invited to relate whatever comes into their minds during the analytic session,and not to censor their thoughts. This technique is intended to help the patient learn more about what he or she thinks and feels in an atmosphere of non-judgmental curiosity and acceptance
Slips of the tongue and slips of the pen and forgetting- is an error in speech, memory, or physical action that is interpreted as occurring due to the interference of some unconscious wish, conflict, ortrain of thought. As a common pun goes, "A Freudian slip is when you mean one thing, but you say your mother."
Carl Marx- German philosopher, political economist, historian, political theorist, sociologist, communist and revolutionary “founder of communism”
Class struggle- active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. The written history of all existingsociety is the history of class struggle
Force of labour- suppliers of labor
Basis- Natural resources, tools, and means of production
Superstructure- part developed on base, in Marxist theory the complex of social, legal, and political institutions that are an extension and reflection of the type of economy operating in a particulate society.
Raw material- something that is acted uponor used by or by human labour or industry
Industrial production- An economic report that measures changes in output for the industrial sector of the economy
Industrial society- A society with a modern societal structure. Such a structure developed in the west in the period of time following the industrial revolution
Proletarian- a worker, industrial wage-earner, part of the working classAlienation- to make somebody feel that he or she does not belong to or share in something, or is isolated from it
Forms of alienation in an industrial society- labour alienation, alienation of man as a citizen in his relationship with the state,
Idealism and Realism- belief in perfection and practical understanding of life (acceptance, things exist objectively)
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