Manual de cultivo de espinacas

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A Handbook for the Production of CEA-Grown Hydroponic Spinach

A publication of the Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) Program
of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences - Cornell University

Introduction | Menu


This document was created Spring, 1997 and is maintained by Don Murdoch. [pic]Last updated 03/05/2002 12:13:50


Welcome to theelectronic handbook for the production of CEA hydroponic spinach. This handbook is designed to be a comprehensive manual for the production of Nutrient Film grown CEA (Controlled Environment Agriculture), or greenhouse, spinach. More importantly, it is designed to be interactive. Through the use of hypertext, a chosen topic may be explained more fully or linked to related topics. Just click on theword "hypertext" in the previous sentence for a demonstration. Any highlighted word in this document may be clicked in such a manner. All the small size pictures can be clicked in the same way to access a full screen version. A few notes are in order about the extent of our experience in spinach production. The reader should bear in mind our experience is not unlimited. This handbook describes theprocedures developed in the course of almost 35 trials at the Kenneth Post Laboratory at Cornell University and procedures were initially based on findings in literature, our prior experience with leaf lettuce and were modified as we gained experience. We found spinach to be a difficult crop when compared with leaf lettuce


The production of CEA hydroponicspinach has been divided into the following major concepts:
• Greenhouse Hardware
o Germination Area
▪ Ebb and Flow Benches
▪ Solution Tank
▪ Lighting
▪ Aspirated Box
▪ Sensors
o Nutrient Film Technology (NFT) Area
▪ NFT Trough Size
▪ Nutrient Solution▪ Construction
▪ Lighting
▪ Turbulator Fan
▪ Aspirated Box
o Computer Technology
▪ Environmental Parameters:
▪ Temperature
▪ Relative Humidity
▪ CO2
▪ Lighting
▪ Dissolved Oxygen
▪ pH▪ Electrical Conductivity
• Spinach Production
o Germination & Seedling Stage
▪ Day 0
▪ Day 1
▪ Day 2
▪ Day 3
▪ Day 7
▪ Day 8
o Nutrient Film Stage
▪ Transplanting
▪ Environmental Set-Points
▪ Day 16▪ Day 18
▪ Day 20 - Spacing
▪ Day 26
▪ Day 30
▪ Day 33 - Harvest
• Crop Health
o Diseases
o Pests
• Post-Harvest Procedures
o Storage
o Transportation
• References

This document was created Spring, 1997 and is maintained by DonMurdoch. [pic]Last updated 03/05/2002 12:14:08 .


the physical components of both the Germination Area and the NFT Area are of fundamental importance to hydroponic spinach production. It is necessary to have an idea of the physical components associated with each area, as well as a good understanding of their purposes.


The first 8 days of spinachproduction take place in the Germination Area.
At any given time, a facility capable of producing e.g., 1000 plants per day, seven days per week, will have approximately 11,200 seedlings in the germination area. This allows for culling 20% of the seedling, before transplanting. This requires a Controlled Environment germination area of about 140 square feet (4 m2), not including aisles.
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