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ARTICLE IN PRESS

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11 (2007) 1300–1311 www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

Possible methods for biodiesel production
J.M. MarchettiÃ, V.U. Miguel, A.F. Errazu
´ ´ ´ Planta Piloto de Ingenierıa Quımica, UNS-CONICET, Carrindanga Km 7, 8000 Bahıa Blanca, Argentina Received 18 July 2005; accepted 24 August 2005

Abstract Biodiesel production is a very modernand technological area for researchers due to the relevance that it is winning everyday because of the increase in the petroleum price and the environmental advantages. In this work it is made a review of the alternative technological methods that could be used to produce this fuel. Different studies have been carried out using different oils as raw material, different alcohol (methanol, ethanol,buthanol) as well as different catalysts, homogeneous ones such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and supercritical fluids, and heterogeneous ones such as lipases. In this work advantages and disadvantages of technologies are listed and for all of them a kinetics model is introduced. r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Biodiesel productions methods; ReviewContents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transesterification of vegetables oils . . 2.1. Process variables . . . . . . . . . . . Alkali catalyst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acid catalyst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lipase as catalyst. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1. The advantages of using lipases . 5.2. Some disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1301 1302 1303 1303 1305 1305 1306 1306

ÃCorresponding author. Tel.: +54 291 4861700x267; fax: +54 291 4861600.

E-mail address: jmarchetti@plapiqui.edu.ar (J.M. Marchetti). 1364-0321/$ - see front matter r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rightsreserved. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2005.08.006

ARTICLE IN PRESS
J.M. Marchetti et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11 (2007) 1300–1311 1301

6. Use of supercritical alcohols . 7. Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledgment . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1308 1310 1311 13111. Introduction Due to the increase in the price of the petroleum and the environmental concerns about pollution coming from the car gases, biodiesel is becoming a developing area of high concern. There are different ways of production, with different kinds of raw materials: refine, crude or frying oils. Also there are different types of catalyst, basic ones such as sodium or potassiumhydroxides, acids such as sulfuric acid, ion exchange resins, lipases and supercritical fluids. One of the advantages of this fuel is that the raw materials used to produce it are natural and renewable. All these types of oils come from vegetables or animal fat, making it biodegradable and nontoxic. The typical chemical properties of vegetable oils are given in Table 1 [1]. A typical composition of the...
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