Manual public health management chemical incidents

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risk assessment

Manual

for the Public Health Management of Chemical Incidents

emergency

planning

Manual

for the Public Health Management of Chemical Incidents

This publication was developed in the IOMC context. The contents do not necessarily reflect the views or stated policies of individual IOMC Participating Organizations. The Inter-Organisation Programme for the SoundManagement of Chemicals (IOMC) was established in 1995 following recommendations made by the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development to strengthen co-operation and increase international co-ordination in the field of chemical safety. The participating organisations are FAO, ILO, UNEP UNIDO, UNITAR, WHO and OECD. The World Bank and UNDP are observers. The purpose of , the IOMC is topromote co-ordination of the policies and activities pursued by the Participating Organisations, jointly or separately, to achieve the sound management of chemicals in relation to human health and the environment.

WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Manual for the public health management of chemical incidents. 1. Hazardous substances. 2. Environmental exposure – adverse effects. 3.Environmental exposure – prevention and control. 4. Environmental monitoring. 5. Risk assessment. 6. Data collection. 7. Public health practice. 8. Manuals. I. World Health Organization. ISBN 978 92 4 159814 9 (NLM classification: WA 670)

© World Health Organization 2009 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: bookorders@who.int). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; e-mail: permissions@who.int). The designations employed and the presentation of thematerial in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention ofspecific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization toverify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use. Design & Layout: L’IV Com Sàrl Printed by the WHODocument Production Services, Geneva, Switzerland

CONTENTS

PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS INTRODUCTION
1.1 1.2 THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS PUBLICATION 1.1.1 The epidemiology of chemical incidents SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS 1.2.1 Injury mechanisms 1.2.2 Examples of incident scenarios 1.2.3 The disaster management cycle 1.2.4 A chemical incident management structure CORE PUBLIC HEALTH FUNCTIONS 1.3.1 Riskassessment 1.3.2 Communication

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1.3

PREVENTION
2.1 2.2 2.3 PROTECTION LAYERS SCENARIO ANALYSIS AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT POLICY, LEGISLATION AND ENFORCEMENT 2.3.1 Land-use planning 2.3.2 Licensing of hazardous sites and transport routes 2.3.3 Building regulations 2.3.4 Control of chemical transportation and storage 2.3.5 Labour health and safety 2.3.6...
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