Manufactura lean

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Polythecnic University of Puerto Rico
Graduate School

MMP 6006 - Lean Manufacturing
Mid-term exam

Name: ____________________________ Section: ___________

"Good Luck"

A. Answer the following questions:

What constitutes value in a Lean Enterprise? How does this contrast to the “traditional definition” of value? Specify ways to define the value of a product or service.

Whichsteps are necessary to define the “value stream” of a product or service? In what categories a “production step” can be classified? Typically, who is involved in this definition process?

What steps are needed to change an enterprise from a “batch and queue” process to a “flow” process? In your opinion, which one is the hardest to implement? Why?

How does inventory impacts the flow of aproduct in manufacturing? Why it is considered a “wall”?

What causes the “end-of-the-month” syndrome in a production floor? How it can be reduced or eliminated?

When changing from a “Push” operating schedule to a “Pull” schedule, which steps are needed to successfully implement it? Why is so difficult to implement it and eliminate the traditional MRP system?

How the concepts of “Pull”operating scheduling can be implemented in a distribution system? What issues enable this operating system from being implemented in more companies and distribution centers?

1. What constitutes value in a Lean Enterprise? How does this contrast to the“traditional definition” of value? Specify ways to define the value of a product or service.

Attributes and features of a product or service that,in the eyes of customers, are worth paying for and understand what the customer wants and change your way of doing business based on it; is what contitute Value in a Lean Enterprise. Because Value is defined by customer in terms of specific products and services. Value is the price that a customer is willing to pay for goods, services or information which is produced or provided by themanufacturer, producer or service provider. Specify value can also, can be define from the standpoint of the end customer by product family. Womack and Jones (2003) state that it is only possible for the final customer or consumer to define this value. Therefore, it is only meaningful when defined value is expressed in terms of specific product, goods, services or both, which meet what the customer requiresat a specific price and time. Murman (2002) describes value as either worth, utility, benefit or reward that is derived, by a stakeholder, from some organisational action. Murman (2002) states that while it is easy to identify stakeholders, it is very difficult to understand what provides value to stakeholders. This is because they do not see value through the eyes of a consumer in terms of theproduct, service or improvement provided. Stakeholders only see value that is hidden in the value stream, as in the case of stakeholders in the finance, human resources or information systems functions of a business, who never get near the physical product, but add benefit along the way. In Lean, if it is not adding value, it is waste.
At the heart of lean is the determination of value. Value isdefined as an item or feature for which a customer is willing to pay. All other aspects of the manufacturing process are deemed waste. Lean manufacturing is used as a tool to focus resources and energies on producing the value-added features while identifying and eliminating non value added activities.Lean starts with a precise definition of what constitutes value from the customer point of viewin terms of the product features and characteristics that are valued by the customer. We can classifie Value in two ways: 1. Value Added Activity thats transforms or shapes material or information or people and it’s done right the first time (what customer wants); 2. Non-Value Added Activity are Pure Waste: Consumes resources, but creates no value in the eyes of the customer; examples are...