1) a) Mode of production: is the way in which production happens.
b) Forces of production: are the means of production and the labour force.
c) Relations of production: therelation between the employer and the employee.
d) Capitalism: the mode of production with private means of production and the relationship between classes is marked by the salaries.
e)Classin itself: Is defined by the position of the working class in the economical structure.
Class for itself: Has to acquire class consciousness (understand that all those who are in the same classposition have the same interests that are opposed to those of other classes). Burguess class is already class conscious.
2) The main principle of functionalism is the belief that social activitymust be functional to the working of the community. This means that a pattern of group activity must help maintain the life of that community, or help to integrate and reinforce values. The organicanalogy compares society to the way a biological organism works. Each organ has a function which contributes to the working of the whole body, and the same happens with society where organs can be forexample, education, family, etc. Homeostasis is the term applied to the way in which an organism regulates itself to cope with internal or external changes. And this concept is used to understand howequilibrium is maintained in society. In addition, the Parsonian functionalism argues that society has four needs that need to be met in order to survive or be stable, these are adaptation (A), goalattainment (G), integration (I) and latency (L).
On the other hand, the Marxist theory is described as ‘historical materialism’. This argues that ideas themselves are products of the material struggle forexistence in the economic base of society. According to him there are three main periods of change that have occurred in the way human societies happen, called epochs and characterised by a mode of...