Mercadeo internacional

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  • Publicado : 17 de mayo de 2011
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CHAPTER 1: NATURE OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETING

International Marketing: Is the multinational (several countries) process of planning and executing the marketing mix (4Ps) to creates exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives.
Domestic Marketing: Is concerned with the marketing practices within a researcher’s or marketer´s home country.
Foreign Marketing: Marketing methodsused outside the home market.

International Marketing
The marketer must cope with different cultural, legal, political and monetary system.
* Risks: Security, health, natural disasters, cultural factors, limited infrastructure, requirements, government restrictions, etc.
* Domestic Mktg. Vs. International Mktg.

En ocasiones coincide el Marketing Mix.

* A company needs todevelop its own global mktg. strategy to be able to survive and become stronger when facing Globalization Drivers.
* Main Globalization drivers
* MARKET FACTORS: Habits, purchasing power, infrastructure, telecommunications, distribution channels.
* COSTS FACTORS: Avoid effort duplicity. Pricing scales.
* ENVIRONMENT FACTORS: Government barriers, physical borders destruction,technology.
* COMPETITOR FACTORS: Be the first on doing something, adapting to competitors moves.

* Internationalization Process
* Stages of Internationalization
* Domestic business
* Sporadic exporting
* Frequent exporting
* Overseas manufacturing
* Born Global
* Mission of being global from birth
* Resources committed to internationalactivities

* Benefits of Internationalization Marketing
* Survival and Growth (para que las empresas puedan sobrevivir necesitan crecer, ya que no todas las empresas son tan afortunadas como las de USA que tienen opportunities, resources, market size, etc.)
* Sales and Profits
* Diversification (one way to diversify a company’s risk is to consider foreign markets as a solution tovariable demand.)
* Inflation and Price Moderation (according to market)
* Employment (by contracting people)
* Standards of Living (i.e. avoid product shortage)
* Understanding of Marketing Process (i.e. schools need to globalize curricula)

CHAPTER 2: Trade theories and economic development.

Absolute advantage: Ability of a nation to produce a good more efficiently than anyother nation (greater output using same or fewer resources). (capacidad de una nación para producir un bien de manera más eficiente que cualquier otra nación (mayor producción con los mismos recursos o menos)
Comparative advantage: Inability of a nation to produce a good more efficiently than other nations, but an ability to produce that good more efficiently than it does any other good.( Laincapacidad de una nación para producir un bien más eficientemente que otras naciones, sino una capacidad de producir ese bien de manera más eficiente de lo que hace cualquier otro bien).

In order to determine the extent of trading gain, an examination of the domestic exchange ration is required.

Factor endowment theory.
La teoría tiene unos problemas que es en base solo de trabajo entermino de tiempo y costos. Entonces esto es como un error por que primero que todo no se tiene en cuenta la calidad, un país puede tener salarios mas altos o mas bajitos que otros, el precio de un producto no es necesariamente determinado por la cantidad de trabajo que tenga, y también hay que tener en cuenta el capital y la tierra del país por que dependiendo de eso va a ser o altamente mecanizado omanual.
Leontief Paradox
* Research discovered evidence opposite the prediction of factor proportions theory
* US exports are more labor-intensive than US imports
* Possible explanation
* Theory assumes nation’s production factors to be homogeneous
* Theory is better predictor when expenditures on labor are considered

Since countries have different factors endowments, a...
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