ACADEMIC TOPIC OVERVIEWS
International Business > International Advertising
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issues in international advertising in the 1994 special issue of “Journal of Advertising.” Corporations have increased their international advertising budgets. Globaladvertising expenditures exceeded $322 billion in 2000 (Burberry, 2000) and continue to grow pass the $400 billion mark (O’Guinn, Allen, & Semenik, 2003). Although the field is growing, organizations face several challenges as they determine the types of strategies their businesses will utilize in order to make their presence known in the international market. Stafford (2005) emphasized four of themajor challenges that corporations will need to address. Corporations should work on their positions regarding message issues, standardization versus adaptation, media issues, and advertising regulations. • Message Issues. Corporations must develop a message that accurately reflects the culture of interest. It has been found that specific aspects and psychological factors may differ significantlyacross cultures (Cateora & Graham, 2002) even though the outcomes may be the same. In most cases, there is a possibility that these variables may have a significant impact on the advertising message. Researchers (Nevett, 1992; Koudelova & Whitelock, 2001) have conducted content analysis to explore this phenomenon. These researchers may use “a coding system to distinguish the differences inappeals, executions, tactics, or cues across two or more countries” (Stafford, 2005, p. 66). • Adaptation versus Standardization. Many in the field continue to debate whether or not standardization or adaptation is the best method for international advertising. As a result of the different perspectives, three schools of thought have emerged – standardization, adaptation, and contingency. Supporters ofthe standardization model believe that international advertising should highlight the similar desires of buyers regardless of the country of origin. The adaptation model seeks to ensure that cultural issues are addressed in advertisements. The contingency model falls in the middle of the two previously mentioned approaches. This perspective encourages corporations to make a decision based onAbstract
This article will focus on how organizations can create an effective international advertising program for their business. Many corporations have seen the need to venture into the international market. As a result, they have challenged their marketing departments to develop advertising campaigns that will highlight their products and services in targeted countries. Although the field isgrowing, organizations face several challenges as they determine the types of strategies their businesses will utilize in order to make their presence known in the international market. Although there is no one way to create an effective international advertising program, one practitioner has provided three easy steps that can serve as a guideline when developing an effective international advertisingstrategy.
Many corporations have seen the need to venture into the international market. As a result, they have challenged their marketing departments to develop advertising campaigns that will highlight their products and services in targeted countries. Given the popularity, academicians and practitioners have contributed to the literature in terms of what the best practices are ininternational advertising. Zinkhan (1994) discussed some of the important
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Essay by Marie Gould
Adaptation Model Advertising Strategies Contingency Model Direct Advertising International Advertising International Franchise Association International Marketing...