Metales

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Process Metallurgy is one of the oldest applied sciences. Its history can be traced back to 6000 BC. Admittedly, its form at that time was rudimentary, but, to gain a perspective in ProcessMetallurgy, it is worthwhile to spend a little time studying the initiation of mankind's association with metals. Currently there are 86 known metals. The “Metals of Antiquity”, are the metals upon whichcivilisation was based. These metals were:
(1) Gold (ca) 6000BC
(2) Copper,(ca) 4200BC
(3) Silver,(ca) 4000BC
(4) Lead, (ca) 3500BC
(5) Tin, (ca) 1750BC
(6) Iron,smelted, (ca) 1500BC
(7)Mercury, (ca) 750BC

These metals were known to the Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Greeks and the Romans. Of the seven metals, five can be found in their native states, e.g., gold, silver, copper, iron(from meteors) and mercury. However, the occurrence of these metals was not abundant and the first two metals to be used widely were gold and copper. The history of metals is closely linked to that ofcoins and ornaments.

Early uses of metals around the World

In India:
Comparatively very little metal has been found in the ancient sites of India. There is no indication that natural copper wasever used in India as a malleable form of stone which could be hammered instead of chipped or ground into shape. For there is no natural metallic copper of this kind in India, and the essence of itsuse in this way was the fact that it could be picked up like stone in certain regions, heated and hammered into shape with a stone hammer.

China:
Many excavations have been taking place in the pastseveral years, it has been proved that surprisingly Chinese used iron to produce most of their weapons and most practical implements. These replaced almost entirely all their bronze weapons.American Indian empires
The primary American Indian civilizations were the Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas. Each had its own form of government, trade, and culture. A common thread was their ability to work...
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