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Substance-Related Disorder: METHAMPHETAMINES

The substance-related disorders are syndromes of intoxication, dependence and abuse caused by substances that can be alcohol, amphetamines,caffeine, nicotine, etcetera. The methamphetamine is an addictive, classified as a Schedule II drug that stimulates the central nervous system, it can be prescribed by a doctor because its medical uses arelimited and the doses are prescribed much lower than those typically abused.

Methamphetamine has more common names, it is known as speed, meth, chalk, ice, crystal and glass. Methamphetamineis a white, odorless, bitter-tasting crystalline powder that can be easily dissolved in water or alcohol; it can be taken orally, intranasal, by needle injection, or by smoking. The drug also altersmood in different ways, depending on how it is taken. Immediately after smoking the drug or injecting it intravenously, the user experiences an intense rush or "flash" that lasts only a few minutes andis described as extremely pleasurable. Snorting or oral ingestion produces euphoria, snorting produces effects within 3 to 5 minutes, and oral ingestion produces effects within 15 to 20 minutes.The possible cause of the abuse of methamphetamines is that the ease of synthesis from inexpensive and readily obtainable chemicals. Another reason can be that the methamphetamine lasts more timethan other drugs like cocaine, this results in methamphetamine being present in the brain longer, which ultimately leads to prolonged stimulant effects. And although both methamphetamine and cocaineincrease levels of the brain chemical dopamine, cocaine prolongs dopamine actions in the brain by blocking dopamine re-uptake. While at low doses, methamphetamine blocks dopamine re-uptake,methamphetamine also increases the release of dopamine, leading to much higher concentrations in the synapse, which can be toxic to nerve terminals.

Methamphetamine increases wakefulness and physical...
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