FL TEACHING METHODS
* The Grammar Translation Method
* The Natural Method
* The Direct Method
* The Oral Approach
* The Audiolingual Method
* Communicative Language Teaching
* Total Physical Response
* The Silent Way
1. GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD
It derives from the traditionalapproach to the teaching of Latin and Greek.
It involves 2 components:
a. grammatical rules & vocabulary
b. use of translation
1.- study of LITERATURE of the L2
2.- instruction in the student’s NATIVE LANGUAGE
3.- READING and WRITING are major focuses, no speaking or listening
4.- VOCABULARY selection is based on the texts used, words taughtthrough bilingual WORDS LISTS
5.- the SENTENCE is the basic unit of teaching
6.- ACCURACY is emphasized. Students expected high standards in translation
7.- Grammar is taught DEDUCTIVELY, by presentation and study of grammar rules, and then practiced through translation exercises
* This method dominated Europe from the 1840’s to the 1940’s
* In modified form it’s used in someparts of the world today.
* Mid & late 19th century opposition to the grammar-translation method in several European countries.
* In Germany, England, France and other parts of Europe new approaches to language teaching were developed .
* The Reform Movement led to the Natural Method and the Direct Method.
2. THE NATURAL METHOD
* This method developed as a reaction togrammar-translation, mainly in France.
* Its name comes from natural way to learn a language: exposure to the language used in everyday communicative interactions.
* Model was acquisition of L1: grammar not taught and translation irrelevant.
* No explanation of grammar, teachers encourage direct and spontaneous use of L2 in the classroom.
* Learners then are able to guess rules ofgrammar.
* No textbook in the early stages of learning.
* Speaking starts with systematic attention to pronunciation.
* This provided the foundation for the Direct Method: the most important of the natural methods.
3. THE DIRECT METHOD
It was introduced in France and Germany.
c. emphasize the learning of speech
d. acquire meaning in environmentalcontext
e. learn grammar through induction.
* Classroom instruction conducted in L2
* Grammar taught INDUCTIVELY
* New teaching points introduced orally
* Vocabulary taught through demonstrations (objects & pictures)
* Correct pronunciation & grammar emphasized
* Only everyday vocabulary & sentences taught
*Oral communication skills graded.
* Teachers with a high level in English
* Sometimes a lot of time is wasted to explain a word in English instead of using Spanish
* Not everyone liked the Direct Method
* British had recognized its limitations.
* New developments:
* the Audiolingualism in the United States
* the Oral Approachin Britain.
4. THE ORAL APPROACH OR SITUATIONAL LANGUAGE TEACHING
* British origins in the 1920’s and 1930’s in applied linguistics.
h. presentation based on situations.
* It was the British approach to English language by the 1950’s.
* Australian George Pitman was one of the most active proponents in the1960’s.
* Language teaching begins with the spoken language. Orally before written form.
* English is the language of the classroom.
* New language points are introduced and practiced situational.
* Grammar items graded: single forms before complex ones.
* Reading and writing are introduced once a sufficient lexical and grammatical basis is...