Metodos de enseñanza de una lengua extranjera

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BLOQUE III: FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS.
FL TEACHING METHODS
* The Grammar Translation Method
* The Natural Method
* The Direct Method
* The Oral Approach
* The Audiolingual Method
* Communicative Language Teaching
* Total Physical Response
* The Silent Way
* Suggestopedia
* CLIL

1. GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD
It derives from the traditionalapproach to the teaching of Latin and Greek.
It involves 2 components:
a. grammatical rules & vocabulary
b. use of translation

Characteristics:
1.- study of LITERATURE of the L2
2.- instruction in the student’s NATIVE LANGUAGE
3.- READING and WRITING are major focuses, no speaking or listening
4.- VOCABULARY selection is based on the texts used, words taughtthrough bilingual WORDS LISTS
5.- the SENTENCE is the basic unit of teaching
6.- ACCURACY is emphasized. Students expected high standards in translation
7.- Grammar is taught DEDUCTIVELY, by presentation and study of grammar rules, and then practiced through translation exercises
* This method dominated Europe from the 1840’s to the 1940’s
* In modified form it’s used in someparts of the world today.
* Mid & late 19th century opposition to the grammar-translation method in several European countries.
* In Germany, England, France and other parts of Europe new approaches to language teaching were developed .
* The Reform Movement led to the Natural Method and the Direct Method.

2. THE NATURAL METHOD

* This method developed as a reaction togrammar-translation, mainly in France.
* Its name comes from natural way to learn a language: exposure to the language used in everyday communicative interactions.
* Model was acquisition of L1: grammar not taught and translation irrelevant.
* No explanation of grammar, teachers encourage direct and spontaneous use of L2 in the classroom.
* Learners then are able to guess rules ofgrammar.
* No textbook in the early stages of learning.
* Speaking starts with systematic attention to pronunciation.
* This provided the foundation for the Direct Method: the most important of the natural methods.

3. THE DIRECT METHOD
It was introduced in France and Germany.
Main Aims:
c. emphasize the learning of speech
d. acquire meaning in environmentalcontext
e. learn grammar through induction.

Characteristics:
* Classroom instruction conducted in L2
* Grammar taught INDUCTIVELY
* New teaching points introduced orally
* Vocabulary taught through demonstrations (objects & pictures)
* Correct pronunciation & grammar emphasized
* Only everyday vocabulary & sentences taught
*Oral communication skills graded.

* Drawbacks:
* Teachers with a high level in English
* Sometimes a lot of time is wasted to explain a word in English instead of using Spanish
* Not everyone liked the Direct Method
* British had recognized its limitations.
* New developments:
* the Audiolingualism in the United States
* the Oral Approachin Britain.

4. THE ORAL APPROACH OR SITUATIONAL LANGUAGE TEACHING

* British origins in the 1920’s and 1930’s in applied linguistics.
* Principles:
f. selection
g. gradation
h. presentation based on situations.
* It was the British approach to English language by the 1950’s.
* Australian George Pitman was one of the most active proponents in the1960’s.

Characteristics:
* Language teaching begins with the spoken language. Orally before written form.
* English is the language of the classroom.
* New language points are introduced and practiced situational.
* Grammar items graded: single forms before complex ones.
* Reading and writing are introduced once a sufficient lexical and grammatical basis is...
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