Metodos

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UNIVERSITY OF EL SALVADOR
WESTERN MULTIDISCIPLINARY CAMPUS
LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT

APA NORMS (GROUP 1)
Chávez Aguirre, Denny Coralina
Castaneda Vasquez, José Oswaldo
Guerrero García, Silvia Karina
Orellana Carmona, Karen Estefany

American Psychological Association (APA)
American Psychological Association, best known as APA, is a system which used correctly, helps the writer to avoidthe terrible sin of plagiarism while editing a research paper.

Reference Citation in Text (books)
According to the fifth APA Guideline Edition, APA utilizes a system of brief referencing in the text of a paper, whether one is paraphrasing or providing a direct quotation from another author’s work. Citations in the text usually consist of the name of the author(s) and the date of publication.The complete citation would appear in the alphabetical References list at the end of the paper.
Parenthetical Citation (Parenthetical: adjective formal describes a remark which is said in addition to the main part of what you are saying)
As metaphors for the workings of nature, Darwin used the tangled bank, the tree of life, and the face of nature (Gould, 1989).

Author as Part of theNarrative
Gould (1989) attributes Darwin's success to his gift for making the appropriate metaphor.

Author and Date As Part of the Narrative (acceptable but not preferred)
In a 1989 article, Gould explores some of Darwin's most effective metaphors.

Direct Quotation with Parenthetical Citation
Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life "to express the other form ofinterconnectedness–genealogical rather than ecological" (Gould, 1989, p. 14).
Notice that direct quotations always provide the author, year and specific page of the quote.

Direct Quotation with Name of Author in the Text
Gould (1989) explains that Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life "to express the other form of interconnectedness genealogical rather than ecological–and to illustrate both success and failure inthe history of life" (p. 14)
One work, three or more authors
Cite all authors first time. Second citation includes surname of first author followed by "et al." and year. (Refer to manual for subsequent citations.) Wasserstein, Zappulla, and Rock (1994) found [first citation in text] Wasserstein et al. (1994) found [second citation]

Groups as authors
Usually spelled out each time cited intext, abbreviation may be used for subsequent citations if abbreviation is familiar or understandable. First text citation: (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1991)
Subsequent text citations: (NIMH, 1991)
Authors, same surname
Include first author's initials in all text citations (if two or more authors with same surname are cited). R. D. Luce (1959) and P. A. Luce (1986) also found J.M. Goldberg and Neff (1961) and M. E. Goldberg and Wurtz (1972) studied

Two or more works, same parentheses (different publication dates)
Order, by year of publication, according to reference list, In-press citations last.
Past research (Edeline&Weinberger, 1991, 1993) past research (Gogel, 1984, 1990, in press)

Two or more works, same parentheses (same publication date)
Identify bysuffixes, a, b, c, etc. Suffixes assigned in reference list.
Several studies (Zola-Kant & Squire, 1986, 1990, in press-a, in press-b)
Several studies (Johnson, 1991a, 1991b; Singh, 1983, in press-a, in press-b)

Two or more works, different authors (same parentheses)
List in alphabetical order by first author's surname, and then separate with semicolon.
Several studies (Balda, 1980; Kamil, 1988;Pepperberg & Funk, 1990)

There are many forms of reference citation in text and the samples above are some of the most used and suitable forms of citing correctly.

REFERENCE FOR ARTICLES OF A MAGAZINE OR NEWSPAPER
Basic form
According to APA style the following parts must be taken into account when writing a reference of an article in a periodical:
• the author´s last name followed...
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