Carlos P. Perez Muñoz/Luis Enrique Galicia Gordillo
Mexican State Of Veracruz
April 5th, 2011
Veracruz is one of the 31 states that constitute the United Mexican States. Veracruz is bordered by Tamaulipas to the north, the Gulf to the east, Tabasco to the southeast, Oaxaca andChiapas to the south and Puebla, Hidalgo, and San Luis Potosi to the west. The population of 7 million is the third largest in Mexico. The state is noted for its mixed ethnic and large indigenous populations. Its cuisine reflects the many cultural influences that have come through the state because of the importance of the port of Veracruz. The capital is Xalapa, and other important cities includeVeracruz,Coatzacoalcos, Córdoba and Orizaba.
The primary sectory of the economy (agriculture, forestry and fishing) has been important since pre-Hispanic times and continues to be important both as a source of income as well as culturally. The state has abundant rainfall and extremely fertile soils, as well as a long coastline and forest containing a wide variety of trees and otherplants.
The state grows half of the country’s citrus fruit and grows the most kinds. This occupies 180,577 hectares and produces 2,575,140 tons annually. Varieties include oranges, tangerines, mandarins, limes and grapefruit. Most citrus is grown in the north of the state, and much of the lime crop is exported, supporting a packing and shipping industry.
Today, the state of Veracruz, rich innatural resources, is an important component of Mexico's economy. Approximately 35% of Mexico's water supply is found in Veracruz. There are a number of metallic and non-metallic mineral mining but the most important resource is oil.
The manufacturing industry in Veracruz accounts for between 21% and one third of the state's gross domestic product, and approximately 64% of the manufacturing industryGDP is generated by the chemical and petrochemical sectors. Other products producedinclude metals, processed foods, beverages, printing and publishing, textiles and machinery. Most of the states industry takes place in the municipalities of Coatzacoalcos, Minatitlán, Cosoleacaque, Poza Rica, Córdoba, Orizaba, Tuxpan and Veracruz, with over 5,000 establishments.
The gastronomy of thestate is unique in Mexico and mixed Spanish, indigenous and other influences. From the pre-Hispanic period, the cuisine of the state was unique. The staple triumvirate of corn, beans and squash was supplemented by tropical fruits, vanilla beans and an herb called acuyo or hoja santa. Another important native contribution is seafood, which is feature in many dishes such as arroz a la tumbadaandcaldo de mariscos (seafood soup).
The state capital of Xalapa is also home to a number of important museums. The Museum of Anthropology contains the second most important collection of Mesoamerican artifacts in the country. It was built beginning in 1959 over six hectares. The complex is divided into to various halls and galleries by theme, focusing on the Olmec and Totonaca cultures. The PatioOlmeca contains the colossal head found in 1945 and known as El Rey (The King). Other important artifacts include giant stelae and a figure of an Olmec Jaguar-King. The Museum of Science and Technology is in Xalapa. It contains more than 400 exhibitions in eight halls: Life, Ecology, Space, Transportation, Sciences, Energy, Water and Earth.
The state is noted for its quantity and variety offestivals. The most important of these is Carnival in the city of Veracruz. This city’s version of the event begins with the “burning of bad humor,” which is represented in effigy. A number of Kings and Queens are coronated including categories for children bu the most important is the Rey Feo (Ugly King) and the Reina del Carnaval (Queen of the Carnival). The latter is accompanies by cadets from the...