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Civil Wars & the Mexican Revolution
Anil Hira SFU, Lecture for LAS 200 Fall 2007

My Back Pages R. Zimmerman
Half-wracked prejudice leaped forth "Rip down all hate," I screamed Lies that life is black and white Spoke from my skull. I dreamed Romantic facts of musketeers Foundationed deep, somehow. Ah, but I was so much older then, I'm younger than that now.
A self-ordained professor'stongue Too serious to fool Spouted out that liberty Is just equality in school "Equality," I spoke the word As if a wedding vow. Ah, but I was so much older then, I'm younger than that now.

Yes, my guard stood hard when abstract threats Too noble to neglect Deceived me into thinking I had something to protect Good and bad, I define these terms Quite clear, no doubt, somehow. Ah, but I was so mucholder then, I'm younger than that now.

Sources and Solutions of Domestic Instability
No colonial transition Variety of political ideas and plans
Liberalism vs. conservatism

Constitutionalism vs. power Economic constraints Concentrations of political and economic power Possible solutions to these problems?

Colonial transitions
Contrast b/t Spanish and other contemp. colonies: US,Canada, Brazil Goals of creoles Development of new constitutions Economic Dependence
*How could a colonial transition be better managed? Why no monarchy? * What makes a constitution effective?

Liberals vs. Conservatives
Liberals: ideas r/ed to the Enlightenment & constitutional political theories LA Conservatives: tend towards more “organic view of society” Axes of conflict: role of church;degree of centralization
*What is a more natural fit for LA? What are the implications of each view for how society should be governed & how devt. can occur? *What role should the Church play in politics? *What are the arguments for and a against a strong national govt. vs. federalism?

The Mexican Revolution
The most important socioeco event in LA in the 20th century? One of the mostimportant socioeco revolutions- completed before the Russian Revolution Precursors: Hidalgo, Juarez, Diaz; elements of these and revolutionary leaders emblematic of LA today

Hidalgo Uprising
Grito de Dolores- part of Mex. independence, but not really Hidalgo- priest, in 40s, in backwater town H becomes involved in creole uprising Govt. catches wind and cracks down H, w/initial consent of creoles;foments an indigenous uprising- 80,000? in 1810 Class/ethnic war for 1 year; near capture of Mexico City Movement is crushed in 1811 A precursor and a lesson for LA’s elite

Srce: wikipedia: Miguel Hidalgo

Juárez

Benito Juarez & Mex. Liberalism
b. 1806- Indian in Oaxaca- Church seminary lawyer, became part of natl legislature, govt. of Oaxaca in 1846; sent into exile in US by Santa Annain 1848 1855- 57 Part of Liberal Govts that pass important reform laws, reducing Church powers & expanding vote 1861- Amidst civil war, Juarez takes power in Mexico City 1862-67 Maximilian placed on throne by Napol.
Juarez fights w/help of US

1867 Juarez re-elected; fragmentation of govt; dies in office Diaz takes over shortly thereafter as dictator

Caudillos and Clientelism
Emergingsolution to postindependence questions: regional chiefs slowly become 1 jefe Church pushed out; centralized govt. slowly consolidates power Caudillo and patronage network is consolidating factor- r/es to corruption probs *Is caudillismo uniquely Latin American? *Can caudillos be beneficial and/or constitutional? *Can patronage networks be helpful for the poor? *What is an adequate solution forpolitical succession?

Porfirio Diaz- Caudillo Extraordinaire
1867 elected on platform “effective suffrage and no re-election” Considers himself a “progressive” dictator in Conservative tradition + social darwinism/+ivism Eco policies by “cientificos”
orthodox balanced budgets heavy foreign investment; esp. in nat. resources reliance on foreign technology uneven regional devt; very poor income...
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