Middle ages

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Early Middle ages
* Germanic kingdoms replaced roman provinces
* Personal ties replaces citizenship
* 5th century AD-western half of the roman empire fell to barbarians
* Constant warfare disrupted trade- it collapsed in Europe
* Towns declined
* Without the empire, there was no need for cities as centers of administration
* Population of western Europe became mostlyrural
* Learning fell into decline- the invading barbarians were illiterate
* By 600, priests were the only Europeans who were literate
* Feudal system- an agreement between a lord and a vassal (contract)
* Vassal- pledged loyalty to the lord and the lord gave the vassal control of a piece of land called a fief
* Vassal needed a small army to protect his land, hewould divide his estate up into several small estates, keep the best land for himself, and give the rest of his warriors/knights
* Manor: basic economic unit of feudalism- small estate in which a lords family gained its livelihood
* Serfs- worked the land and served the lord on the manor
* Made up the majority of the population not free but no slaves- tied to the manor
Culture of theMiddle Ages
* Knights lived by the code of chivalry
* Demanded that a knight fight bravely in the defense of his feudal lord, God, and his chosen lady- also should defend the poor and weak
* The idea of romantic love arose
* A knights duty to his lady became equally important to his duty to his lord
* Poets called troubadours sang the praises of noble lady;s and theknights that loved them
* The architecture was very defensive
* Tall and smooth walls , and surrounded by water and on hills (castles)
* Churches were always huge, to show power, to glorify god, and educate people with statues stories
* Romanesque
* Gothic
* The roman Catholic Church was one institution from roman times that didnot break down
* Church acted as the strongest civilizing force in western Europe
* Missionaries traveled among the Germanic and celtic groups that bordered the roman empires
* ST. Patrick is the most famous missionary of the middle ages
* Clovis: converted to christitinatiy and spread it throughout the Frankish (French) Kingdom
* VY 600 much of the European population hadconverted
* The church has to adapt to increasingly rural conditions
* One effect was the growth of monasteries
* Monasteries: communities in which groups of Christian men gave up all their lives to worship and prayer
* Women were called nuns- they lived in convents
* Expected to live according to the threefold rule of poverty, chastity and obedience
* TheBenediction Rule: (540) Benedict wrote a strict set of rule for monastic life and provided monks and nuns with a workable system for disciplining their lives
* Islands of stability in a sea of chaos
* Best governed communities anywhere in europoe because they followed an oderly, written body of rules
* Most educated communities- operated schools maintened libraries and copies of books* Perserved Rome’s intellectual heritage
* Originally from Scandinavia
* They had almost no contact with Rome, they were still pagans that worshiped multiple gods.
* Raided coastal and inland villages and monasteries
* Their worship were the technological marvel of their age
* They were also traders and explorers who made it as a far as newfoundland
* Vikings alsosettles widely in Europe
* 1000 AD, the Viking age ended for three reasons: Europeans figured out how to fend them off, gradually adopted Christianity, a warming trend allowed them more successful farming in Scandinavia
* They were the last great raiders to descend on Western Europe

Royal Governments:
* Kings laid the groundwork for royal power by strengthening control...
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