Middle school chemistry objectives

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MIDDLE SCHOOL CHEMISTRY OBJECTIVES

Chapter 1 - The Science of Chemistry

Section 1
What is Chemistry? Describe ways in which chemistry is a part of your daily life.
Describe the characteristics of three common states of matter.
Describe physical and chemical changes, and give examples of each.
Identify the reactants and products in a chemical reaction.

Section 2
Describing MatterDistinguish between different characteristics of matter, including mass, volume, and weight.
Identify and use SI units in measurements and calculations.
Set up conversion factors, and use them in calculations.
Identify and describe physical properties, including density.
Identify chemical properties.

Section 3
How is Matter Classified? Distinguish between elements and compounds.
Distinguishbetween pure substances and mixtures.
Classify mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous.
Explain the difference between mixtures and compounds.

Chapter 2 – Matter and Energy

Section 1
Energy Explain that physical and chemical changes in matter involve transfers of energy.
Apply the law of conservation of energy to analyze changes in matter.
Distinguish between heat and temperature.Convert between the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales.

Section 2
Studying Matter and Energy Describe how chemists use the scientific method.
Explain the purpose of controlling the conditions of an experiment.
Explain the difference between a hypothesis, a theory, and a law.

Section 3
Measurements and Calculations in Chemistry Distinguish between accuracy and precision in measurements.Determine the number of significant figures in a measurement, and apply rules for significant figures in calculations.
Calculate changes in energy using the equation for specific heat, and round the results to the correct number of significant figures.
Write very large and very small numbers in scientific notation.

Chapter 3 – Atoms and Moles

Section 1
Substances Are Made of Atoms Statethe three laws that support the existence of atoms.
List the five principles of John Dalton’s atomic theory.

Section 2
Structure of Atoms Describe the evidence for the existence of electrons, protons, and neutrons, and describe the properties of these subatomic particles.
Discuss atoms of different elements in terms of their numbers of electrons, protons, and neutrons, and define the termsatomic number and mass number.
Define isotope, and determine the number of particles in the nucleus of an isotope.

Section 3
Electron Configuration Compare the Rutherford, Bohr, and quantum models of an atom.
Explain how the wavelengths of light emitted by an atom provide information about electron energy levels.
List the four quantum numbers, and describe their significance.
Write theelectron configuration of an atom by using the Pauli exclusion principle and the aufbau principle.

Section 4
Counting Atoms Compare the quantities and units for atomic mass with those for molar mass.
Define mole, and explain why this unit is used to count atoms.
Calculate either mass with molar mass or number with Avogadro’s number given an amount in moles.

Chapter 4 – The Periodic TableSection 1
How Are Elements Organized? Describe the historical development of the periodic table.
Describe the organization of the modern periodic table according to the periodic law.

Section 2
Tour of the Periodic Table Locate the different families of main-group elements on the periodic table, describe their characteristic properties, and relate their properties to their electronicconfiguration.
Locate metals on the periodic table, describe their characteristic properties, and relate their properties to their electronic configuration.

Section 3
Trends in the Periodic Table Describe periodic trends in ionization energy, and relate them to the atomic structure of the elements.
Describe periodic trends in atomic radius, and relate them to the atomic structure of the elements....
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