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OBJETIVO.- Al término de la presente unidad el estudiante habrá adquirido las herramientas gramaticales para reconocer los elementos básicos en la comprensión de la lectura.



Words are used to represent things and experiences in the real or imagined world. Different words can be used to describethe same thing or experience.


A referent is the concrete object or concept that is designated by a word or expression. A referent is an object, action, state, relationship, or attribute in the referential real.

Historically, there was only one person called George Washington, the first president of the United States. He can be referred to in a text in many ways, such asthe president
Mr. Washington
he, or even
my friend.

Even though there are many ways to talk about him, there is only one referent in the referential realm.

What is reference?


Here are two senses for reference:
1. Reference is the symbolic relationship that a linguistic expression has with the concrete object or abstraction it represents.
2.Reference is the relationship of one linguistic expression to another, in which one provides the information necessary to interpret the other.

Here is an example of reference:
A pronoun refers to the noun antecedent that is used to interpret it.

ACTIVITY 1.- Read the sentences. Then underline the best answer to each question.

1. Maria asked her mother to give her some paper.She wanted to draw a picture of her mother. What does “she” refer to?
a) Mother
b) Maria and mother.
c) María

2. Dave and Adam bought a dog. They named it “Smiley” What does “they” refer to?
a) Dave.
b) Dave and Adam.
c) Smiley and Dave

3. We are going to the circus after school today. We will have fun there. What does “there” refer to?a) at school
b) today
c) At the circus

4. Jeffrey wanted some of the flowers that Jenny had picked. She took a few from one of the vases. What does “a few” refer to?
a) Jeffrey
b) Flowers
c) Vases

5. Pearl caught a frog in the pond. She wants to keep it for a pet. What does “it” refer to?
a) the pet
b) the pondc) the frog

6. Martin and Ramón like baseball and football. The two of them are on the school teams. What does “ the two of them” refer to?
a) school teams
b) baseball and football
c) Martin and Ramón

ACTIVITY 2.- Read each sentence. Then underline the word in the second sentence that refers to boldface word or words in the first sentence.

1. Alice asked Andyto go to the movies. She paid for the tickets too.

2. Mr. Lane teaches history. He thinks it is interesting.

3. Tina can usually beat Jerry at checkers. She plays well.

4. I have a birthday gift for Carlos. I will give it to Carlos after dinner.

5. Sarita is at a party tonight. She’s having fun there.

6. Robin and Amy like skating and dancing. They are in the same dance class.

7.Let’s go to this park for a picnic. We will tell everyone to come here on Sunday.

8. Grandma is an artist. She will teach Ana and her friends how to paint.

9. Vic wanted some of the apples Carl had picked up. Carl gave him a few from one of the bags.


What is a connector or linking word?

Linking words normally form a link between clauses WITHIN asentence.
(and but so because then until such as)
Another type of linking device is used to form a link BETWEEN sentences. These words must start with a capital letter and are usually immediately followed by a comma: (Furthermore, Moreover, However, Nevertheless, Therefore, in conclusion,)

The function of linking words
Linking devices are neither nouns, nor verbs. They provide a...
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