The system of categories and rules involved in word formation and interpretati-on.
2. what is lexicon?
A speaker’s mental dictionary, which contains information about meaning and
phonological representation of a language’s words.
3. What is the most familiar unit of linguistic analysis?
4. What is the Word?
The smallest free form found inlanguage.
5. What is a morpheme? And give an example.
The smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning or function (e.g., books consists of the two morphemes book + s).
6. What is the difference between simple and complex words?
A word that consists of a single morpheme (e.g., train) is a simple word and is distinguished from complex word which contain two or moremorphemes. (e.g., hunt-er)
7. Why the morphemes are usually arbitrary?
Because there’s not a natural connection between their sound and their meaning.
8. When we use the term morph?
When we want to distinguish the sound of a morpheme from the entire morpheme.
9. What is free morpheme and bound morpheme?
Free morpheme → a morpheme that can be a word by itself (e.g., magnet).
Boundmorpheme → a morpheme that must be attached to another element (e.g., magnet-ize).
10. What are allomorphs?
Allomorphs are Variants forms of a morpheme (e.g., [-s], [-z], and [-əz] are allomorphs of the English plural morpheme).
11. Explain roots and affixes.
The root morpheme constitutes the core of the word and carries the major component if its meaning. (e.g. teach in teacher) andaffixes are always bound morphemes that modify the meaning of the word. (e.g. er in teacher).
12. What is a tree structure?
A diagram that represents the details of a word’s internal organization.
13. What is base?
Is the element to which an affix is added. (e.g., book is the base for the affix -s in books, blacken is the base for the affix -ed in blackened).
14. What is affixation?Explain types of affixation.
The addition of an affix. There are three types of affixes: Prefix an affix that is attached to the front of its base (e.g. de-activate); Suffix an affix that is attached to the end of its base (e.g. hunt-er); Infix an affix that occurs within a base.
15. What are clitics?
Are short unstressed forms that are pronounced together with another element as if thetwo were a single unit.
16. What is Cliticization
The process by which a clitic is attached to a word.
17. Explain types of cliticization.
Enclitics → clitics that attach to the end of a preceding word.
Proclitics → clitics that attach to the beginning of a following word.
18. What is Internal Change?
A process that substitutes one nonmorphemic segment for another to mark agrammatical contrast (e.g., sing, sang, sung).
19. What does mean the terms ablaut and umlaut?
Ablaut → a vowel alternation that marks a grammatical contrast (e.g., mouse/mice).
Umlaut → involves the fronting of a vowel under the influence of a front vowel in the following syllable.
20. What is suppletion?
A morphological process that replaces a morph by an entirely different morph inorder to indicate a grammatical contrast. (e.g., go/went).
21. What is Reduplication?
A morphological process in certain languages (but not English) that duplicates all or part of the base to which it applies to mark a grammatical or semantic contrast.
22. Explain types of Reduplication.
Full Reduplication → is the repletion of the entire word.
Partial Reduplication → process inwhich copies only part of the word.
23. What is compounding?
Is the combination of lexical categories (nouns, adjectives, verbs, or prepositions) to create a larger word. (e.g. bookcase).
24. Define Derivation.
Forms a word with a meaning and /or category distinct from that of its base through the addition of an affix.
25. Give examples of derivation affixes.
Suffixes : -able →...