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Motivation is the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior as studied in economics, psychology, neuropsychology, and philosophy. These reasonsmay include basic needs such as food or a desired object, hobbies, goal, state of being, or ideal. The motivation for a behavior may also be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism ormorality. According to Geen,[1] motivation refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of human behavior.
A reward, tangible or intangible, is presented after the occurrence of anaction with the intent to cause the behavior to occur again. This is done by associating positive meaning to the behavior. Studies show that if the person receives the reward immediately, the effect wouldbe greater, and decreases as duration lengthens. Repetitive action-reward combination can cause the action to become habit. Rewards can also be organized as extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic rewardsare external to the person; for example, praise or money. Intrinsic rewards are internal to the person; for example, satisfaction or a feeling of accomplishment.Some authors distinguish between twoforms of intrinsic motivation: one based on enjoyment, the other on obligation. In this context, obligation refers to motivation based on what an individual thinks ought to be done. For instance, afeeling of responsibility for a mission may lead to helping others beyond what is easily observable, rewarded, or fun.
A reinforcer is different from reward, in that reinforcement is intended to create ameasured increase in the rate of a desirable behavior following the addition of something to the environment. The self-control of motivation is increasingly understood as a subset of emotionalintelligence; a person may be highly intelligent according to a more conservative definition (as measured by many intelligence tests), yet unmotivated to dedicate this intelligence to certain tasks. Yale...
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