• No written source to which people can turn.
• Everything was transmitted orally, so knowledge is based to what is relevant in the present, meaning that a story could be transformedfrom one idea to another.
• No Authors.
• No written laws, punishment was terrible for slaves.
• No money.
• No private self
• Time of questioning and scientificdiscovery.
• The private self is invented
• Every person possess rights that most never be denied.
• This period is contemporaneous with Shakespeare, Elizabeth Period, Tudor Period, Cervantes, etc.
•Reason is put in front of feelings.
• Gustave Doré engraving of Milton's Paradise Lost
• The monarchy in England is restored in 1660.
• Advocated reasons asauthority.
• Knowledge is ruled by science.
• The knowledge produced by science will lead toward progress and perfection.
• Freedom means obedience to the laws.
• Sir Joshua Reynold's The Fourth Dukeand Duchess (1778), Stephen Frears' Dangerous Liaisons, Christopher Wren's St. Paul's Cathedral (1675-1710)
• Many changes in society:
o The American Revolution in 1775o The French Revolution in 1789.
o Capitalism began since burgesses took the power over the monarchies.
o People from all social classes learned how to read.
• Mass production ofnovel books.
• A degree of irrationality.
• J. M. W. Turner's Snowstorm (exhibited in 1842), John Martin's The Bard (1817), Caspar David Friedrich's Wanderer in the Mists (1818), William Blake 'sillustration for Gray's The Progress of Poesy, Henry Fuseli 's The Nightmare (1781)
Victorian Period (1832-1898)
• Increasing rise in literacy rates.
• Final establishment of the middle class as thedominant ruling class.
• Middle class values were: domesticity, duty, responsibility, work,
• William Holman Hunt's The Awakening Conscience (1853)
Modernity and Modernism (1898-1945)