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Guatemala
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the country in Central America. For other uses, see Guatemala (disambiguation)
Republic of GuatemalaRepública de Guatemala (Spanish) |
| |
Flag | Coat of arms |
|
Motto: "País de la Eterna Primavera"
"Land of the Eternal Spring"[1] |
Anthem: Himno Nacional deGuatemala
National anthem of Guatemala |
|
Capital
(and largest city) | Guatemala City
14°38′N 90°30′W  |
Official language(s) | Spanish |
Demonym | Guatemalan |
Government | Unitary presidentialConstitutional republic |
 -  | President | Otto Pérez Molina |
 -  | Vice President | Roxana Baldetti |
Independence |
 -  | from Spain | September 15, 1821  |
Area |
 -  | Total| 108,889 km2 (107th)
42,042 sq mi  |
 -  | Water (%) | 0.4 |
Population |
 -  | July 2011 estimate | 13,824,463 (69th) |
 -  | July 2007 census | 12,728,111  |
 -  | Density | 129/km2 (85th)
348.6/sq mi |
GDP (PPP) | 2011 estimate |
 -  | Total | $73.022 billion[2]  |
 -  | Per capita | $4,965[2]  |
GDP (nominal) | 2011 estimate |
 -  | Total | $46.383 billion[2]  |
 -  |Per capita | $3,154[2]  |
Gini (2007) | 55.1 (high)  |
HDI (2011) | 0.574[3] (medium) (131st) |
Currency | Quetzal (GTQ) |
Time zone | Central Time (UTC-6) |
Drives on the | right |
ISO 3166 code | GT |
Internet TLD | .gt |
Calling code | +502 |
Guatemala[4] is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to thenortheast, the Caribbean to the east, and Honduras and El Salvador to the southeast. Its area is 108,890 km2 (42,043 mi2) with an estimated population of 13,276,517.
A representative democracy, its capital is Guatemala de la Asunción, also known as Guatemala City. Guatemala's abundance of biologically significant and unique ecosystems contributes to Mesoamerica's designation as a biodiversityhotspot.[5] The former Mayancivilization was a Mesoamerican civilization, which continued throughout the Post-Classic period until the arrival of the Spanish. The Mayas live in Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, the southern part of Mexico and northern parts of El Salvador.
Guatemala became independent from Spain in 1821, joining the Mexican Empire. After it became an independent country in its ownright, it was ruled by a series of dictators, assisted by the United Fruit Company. The late 20th century saw Guatemala embroiled in a 36-year-longcivil war. Following the war, Guatemala has witnessed both economic growth and successful democratic elections. In the most recent election, held in 2011, Otto Pérez Molina of the Patriotic Party, won the presidency.
Contents  [hide]  * 1 Etymology *2 History * 2.1 Pre-Columbian * 2.2 Colonial * 2.3 Independence and 19th century * 2.4 1944 to the end of the civil war * 2.5 1996 to today * 3 Politics * 4 Departments and municipalities * 5 Geography * 5.1 Natural disasters * 5.2 Volcano Pacaya * 5.3 Biodiversity * 6 Demographics * 6.1 Diaspora * 7 Economy * 8 Culture * 8.1 Art *8.2 Literature * 8.3 Music * 8.4 Language * 8.5 Religion * 8.6 Funeral traditions * 8.7 Education * 8.8 Medical anthropology and pluralism * 8.9 Laureates * 8.10 Journalism * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links |
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[edit]Etymology
The origin of the name "Guatemala" isunclear, but several theories exist. "Guatemala" is derived from "Goathemala," which means "the land of the trees" in the Maya-Toltec language.[6] In Nahuatl, this word can be analyzed as kʷaw 'tree' + te:mal 'bunch' + tla:n 'place of', which is probably a translation of k'i:ʔ-če:ʔ 'K'iche' (Quiché), meaning 'forest', or literally 'many' + 'trees' (Campbell 1997:378). [7] Another theory is that...
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