Howard Gardner's MI Theory was first published in Howard Gardner's book, "Frames OfMind" in 1983, and quickly became established as a classical model by which to understand and teach many aspects of human intelligence, learning style, personality and behaviour - in education and industry. Gardner initially developed his ideas and theory on multiple intelligences as a contribution to psychology; however Gardner's theory was soon embraced by education, teaching and trainingcommunities, for whom the appeal was immediate and irresistible - a sure sign that Gardner had created a classic reference work and learning model.
His thesis was that each person doesn’t have just one type of intelligence, such as might be measured by an IQ test, but several. He described a number of intelligences, each of which was identified with a different part of the brain. His research involvedworking with brain-damaged people to identify how parts of the brain operated in the learning process.
He defined “intelligence” as this: "the ability to create an effective product or offer a service that is valued in a culture; a set of skills that make it possible for a person to solve problems in life; the potential for finding or creating solutions for problems, which involves gathering newknowledge".
So, according to Gardner, intelligence, as it is traditionally defined, does not comprehensively include the wide extant of human abilities. For instance, Gardner reasons that "a child good at memorizing multiplication tables does not necessarily mean he is more intelligent than a child who doesn’t want to or can’t.
Gardner believed that the second child may be stronger in"another kind of intelligence" and may:
Learn the same material by way of a different approach
Do exceedingly well in a subject other than mathematics,
"Even be looking at the multiplication process at a fundamentally deeper level, which can result in a seeming slowness that hides a mathematical intelligence that is potentially higher than that of a child who easily memorizes themultiplication table".
Gardner thought that school systems often focus on a narrow range of intelligence that involves primarily verbal-linguistic and logical-mathematical skills. While knowledge and skills in these areas are essential for surviving and thriving in the world, he suggested that there were at least six other kinds of intelligence that are important to expand human development and thatalmost everyone is available to develop.
They include visual-spatial,
bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, naturalist and intrapersonal intelligence.
Gardner believed that the eight intelligences he identified are independent and that they develop at different times and to different degrees in different individuals.
Gardner and his colleagues also suggested other intelligencesincluding spiritual, existential and moral intelligences, but were excluded due to their criteria limitations.
If we define each type of intelligence for each type of person we could see that:
Involves reading, writing, speaking, and conversing in one's own or foreign languages. It may be exercised through reading interesting books, playing word boardor card games, listening to recordings, using various kinds of computer technology, and participating in conversation and discussions.
Involves number and computing skills, recognizing patterns and relationships, timeliness and order, and the ability to solve different kinds of problems through logic. It may be exercised through classifying and sequencing...