“An Overview of Other Anglophone Countries”
1.1 Historical and Cultural Context
1.2 From a Dominion towards the a 21st Century Multicultural Nation
2.1 Colonial Times
2.2 Emancipation and Progress2.3 National Identity
2.4 From the Golden Age to the 21st Century
3. NEW ZEALAND
3.1 Becoming a Colony
3.2 A Multicultural Country
4.1 Historical and Cultural Roots
4.2 British India
4.3 India after Independence
5. SOUTH AFRICA
5.1 Historical and Cultural Background
5.2 Policy of Apartheid
After the end of World War I, the Dominions began reshaping their relationship with Britain. At the Imperial Conference in 1926, the prime ministers of the participating countries defined the Dominions as autonomous communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate to one another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united bycommon allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations. The definition of Commonwealth was incorporated into British law in 1931. It was adopted immediately in the dominions of Canada, the Irish Free State, Newfoundland and South Africa. Australia ratified the Statute in 1942, and New Zealand and India in 1947. In 1949, the London Declaration wassigned, marking the birth of the modern Commonwealth of Nations. The Head of the Commonwealth is Queen Elizabeth II. The Commonwealth is now a voluntary association of 54 independent sovereign states. Among the prime aims of the Commonwealth today are the promotion of democracy, development, human rights, gender equality, and an equitable sharing of the benefits of globalisation.
Today,Canada is a bilingual multicultural country where different groups live together in harmony. However, cultural pluralism has not always embraced all groups in the past, limitations were imposed.
Canada has also been determined by its geography. It is the second country largest in the world, covering most of the northern part of the North American continent. It is not very densely populated. Canadais known for its rich natural resources and its particularly diverse topography including mountain ranges, fjords and channels. The highest point in Canada is in Mount Logan (6,050 metres), which is in the Yukon. The two principal river systems are the Mackenzie and the St, Lawrence which is navigable for over 3,058 km. Canada is a federation of ten provinces and three territories. The capital isOttawa and its main cities are Montreal,Toronto, and Vancouver.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy that is governed by its own House of Commons, and is a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. The Prime Minister of Canada is the primary Minister of the Crown, the chairman of the Cabinet, and thus the Head of the Canadian Government. Canada became a BritishDominion in 1867 and gained its independence from Britain at the end of the 20th century. Canada still remains part of the Commonwealth.
1.1 Historical and Cultural Context
The first inhabitants of Canada were native Indian peoples. In AD 1000 the Norse explorer Leif Ericson became the first European to land in North America. Some centuries later, in 1497, Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot), an Italianin the service of Henry VII of England, rediscovered the eastern shores of Canada. Jacques Cartier arrived in 1534 on the Gulf of St. Lawrence and claimed those territories for France. The settlement of New France began in 1604 in what is now Nova Scotia. In 1608, the city of Quebec was founded and in 1642, Montreal was founded. By the end of the century, French explorers had penetrated beyond...