Nanotecnologia

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An Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Alain Nouailhat

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An Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

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An Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Alain Nouailhat

Part of this book adapted from “Introduction aux nanosciences et aux nanotechnologies” published in France by HermesScience/Lavoisier in 2006 First published in Great Britain and the United States in 2008 by ISTE Ltd and John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the priorpermission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms and licenses issued by the CLA. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned address: ISTE Ltd 6 Fitzroy Square London W1T 5DX UK John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 111 River Street Hoboken, NJ 07030 USA

www.iste.co.uk
© ISTE Ltd,2008 © LAVOISIER, 2006

www.wiley.com

The rights of Alain Nouailhat to be identified as the author of this work have been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Nouailhat, Alain. An introduction to nanoscience and nanotechnology / Alain Nouailhat. p. cm. "Part of this book adapted from "Introduction auxnanosciences et aux nanotechnologies" published in France by Hermes Science/Lavoisier in 2006." Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-1-84821-007-3 1. Nanoscience. 2. Nanotechnology. I. Title. QC176.8.N35N68 2007 620'.5--dc22 2007021734 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 978-1-84821-007-3 Printed and boundin Great Britain by Antony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham, Wiltshire.

The Physicists

“Leaning over the screens of powerful machines They watch the rise of a world previously unknown From within their instruments new phenomena appear.” (José Maria de Heredia, Les Conquérants, adapted by the author)

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Table of Contents

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xiii xv xvii

Chapter 1. What are Nanos?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1. What are we talking about?. . . . . . . 1.2. References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1.2.1. Two basic facts . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2. Two approaches . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3. Two key points . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3. Some bonus material for economists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 3 7 7 9 11 13

Chapter 2. Some Science to Get You Started. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1. Quantum physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1. From the traditional world to the quantum world 2.1.2. Two fundamental concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2.1. Wave-corpuscle duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2.2. Probability in the quantum world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15 17 17 19 19 21

viii

An Introduction toNanoscience and Nanotechnology

2.2. The key players . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1. The electron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1.1. The cornerstone of matter . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1.2. Electronic states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1.3. The quantification of energy . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1.4. Bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
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