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Tiffany Benítez
Laura Varela
Karla Rotger
Tatiana Martínez

Prof. Beatriz Bravo


Out of the 26 consonant sounds theInternational Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) has for English, there are but three nasal sounds: [m], [n], and [ŋ]. These consonant sounds are produced with a lowered velum in themouth, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. In English, all nasal consonants are voiced so we don´t need to specify voicing when we transcribe them.
These phonemesare the key elements to the Assimilation rule called Nasalization. In English, Nasalization occurs when a vowel placed before a nasal consonant (within the same syllable) isaffected by the later. How? Its sound becomes nasalized. The nasalization of vowels in English is non-phonemic because it is predictable by rule. However, phonetically it isrepresented as following:

V | → | [+ NASAL] | / | ___ | [ + NASAL] | $ |
Vowels | Becomes | Nasalized | In the environment | Before | Nasal segments | Within asyllable |

The rule states that the vowel in such words as den /dɛn/ will become nasalized to [dɛn], but /dɛk/ will not be affected and is pronounced [dɛk] because /k/ is nota nasal segment. Other examples include:
[dəĩm]Dime | [kʰuĩn]queen | [mʌmi]mummy | [kʰom]come | [sĩŋ]sing | [mun]moon |


-Fromkin, Victoria, RobertRodman, and Nina Hyams. The Rules of Phonology. Unknown: Unknown, 2000. Print.
-Jones, Adelaida E. Phonetics for Beginners. Panama: University of Panama Press, 1993. Print.-Fromkin, Victoria, Rober Rodman, and Nina Huams. “An Introduction to Language” –Google Books.
-“Nasalization – School of Choctaw Language.” Home – School of Choctaw Language.
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