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ACI 209R-92 (Reapproved 1997)

Prediction of Creep, Shrinkage, and Temperature Effects in Concrete Structures
Reported by ACI Committee 209
James A. Rhodes? Chairman, Committee 209 James J. Beaudoin Dan E. Brauson*t Bruce R. Gamble H.G. Geymayer Brij B. Goyalt Brian B. Hope John R. Keeton t Clyde E. Kesler William R. Lorman Jack A. Means? Bernard L Meyers l R.H. Mills Domingo J. Carreira++Chairman, Subcommittee II K.W. Nasser A.M. Neville Frederic Roll? John Timus k Michael A. Ward

Corresponding Members: John W. Dougill, H.K. Hilsdorf Committee members voting on the 1992 revisions: Marwan A. Daye Chairman Akthem Al-Manaseer James J. Beaudoiu Dan E. Branson Domingo J. Carreira Jenn-Chuan Chem Menashi D. Cohen Robert L Day
* Member of Subcommittee II, which prepared this report tMember of Subcommittee II S=-=d

Chung C. Fu 1 Satyendra K. Ghosh Brij B. Goyal Will Hansen Stacy K. Hirata Joe Huterer Hesham Marzouk

Bernard L. Meyers Karim W. Nasser Mikael PJ. Olsen Baldev R. Seth Kwok-Nam Shiu Liiia Panula$

This report reviews the methods for predicting creep, shrinkage and temper ature effects in concrete structures. It presents the designer with a unified anddigested approach to the problem of volume changes in concrete. The individual chapters have been written in such a way that they can be used almost independently from the rest of the report. The report is generally consistent with ACI 318 and includes material indicated in the Code, but not specifically defined therein. Keywords: beams (supports); buckling; camber; composite construction (concrete
toconcrete); compressive strength; concretes; concrete slabs; cracking (frac turing); creep properties; curing; deflection; flat concrete plates; flexural strength; girders; lightweight-aggregate concretes; modulus of elasticity; moments of inertia; precast concrete; prestressed concrete: prestress loss; reinforced concrete: shoring; shrinkage; strains; stress relaxation; structural design;temperature; thermal expansion; two-way slabs: volume change; warpage.

CONTENTS Chapter 1--General, pg. 209R-2

l.l-Scope 1.2-Nature of the problem 1.3 -Definitions of terms
Chapter 2-Material response, pg. 209R-4

ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and Commentaries are intended for guidance in designing, planning, executing, or inspecting construction and in preparingspecifications. References to these documents shall not be made in the Project Documents. If items found in these documents are desired to be a part of the Project Documents, they should be phrased in mandatory language and incorporated into the Project Documents.

2.1 -Introduction 2.2-Strength and elastic properties 2.3-Theory for predicting creep and shrinkage of concrete 2.4-Recommended creep andshrinkage equations for standard conditions
The 1992 revisions became effective Mar. 1, 1992. The revisions consisted of minor editorial changes and typographical corrections. Copyright 8 1982 American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by any electronic or mechanicaldevice, printed or written or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.



2.5-Correction factors for conditions other than the standard concrete composition 2.6-Correction factors for concrete composition 2.7-Example2.8-Other methods for prediction of creep and shrinkage 2.9-Thermal expansion coefficient of concrete 2.10-Standards cited in this report
Chapter 3-Factors affeating the structural response assumptions and methods of analysis, pg. 209R-12

5.9-Other cases 5.10-Example
Acknowledgements, pg. 209R-25 References, pg. 209R-25 Notation, pg. 209R-29 Tables, pg. 209R-32

3.1-Introduction 3.2-Principal...
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