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Introduction to Ergonomics

Essential Reading

Ergonomics for Beginners, 2nd edition Jan Dul, Erasmus University, The Netherlands and B. A. Weerdmeester, TNO Institute, The Netherlands Taylor & Francis Pbk 0-7484-0825-8 A Guide to Methodology in Ergonomics: Designing for Human Use Neville Stanton and Mark Young, Brunel University, UK Taylor & Francis Pbk 0-7484-0703-0 Fitting the Task tothe Human, 5th edition K. Kroemer and E. Grandjean Taylor & Francis Hbk 0-7484-0664-6; Pbk 0-7484-0665-4 Evaluation of Human Work, 2nd edition John Wilson and Nigel Corlett, The University of Nottingham, UK Taylor & Francis Hbk 0-7484-0083-4; Pbk 0-7484-0084-2

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Introduction to Ergonomics

R.S. Bridger

First edition published 1995 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. This edition published 2003 by Taylor & Francis 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Taylor & Francis Inc, 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 Taylor & Francis is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group This edition published in the Taylor &Francis e-Library, 2003. © 2003 Robert Bridger All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Every effort has been made toensure that the advice and information in this book is true and accurate at the time of going to press. However, neither the publisher nor the authors can accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made. In the case of drug administration, any medical procedure or the use of technical equipment mentioned within this book, you are strongly advised to consultthe manufacturer’s guidelines. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data A catalogue record has been requested ISBN 0-203-42613-4 Master e-book ISBN

ISBN 0-203-44054-4 (Adobe eReader Format) ISBN 0-415-27378-1 (pbk) 0-415-27377-3 (hbk)

Para Barbara, Daniella yAngelo



Preface to the second edition 1 Introduction The focus of ergonomics 2 Ergonomics and its areas of application in the work system 10 A brief history of ergonomics 11 Attempts to ‘humanise’ work 19 Modern ergonomics 21 Effectiveness and cost effectiveness 26 Future directions for ergonomics 31 Summary 31 Essays and exercises 32 2 Anatomy, posture and body mechanics Somebasic body mechanics 34 Anatomy of the spine and pelvis related to posture 36 Postural stability and postural adaptation 42 Low back pain 44 Risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace 48 Behavioural aspects of posture 53 Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness 55 Research directions 56 Summary 56 Essays and exercises 57 3 Anthropometric principles in workspace and equipment designDesigning for a population of users 58 Sources of human variability 58 Anthropometry and its uses in ergonomics 60 Principles of applied anthropometry in ergonomics 69 Application of anthropometry in design 76 Design for everyone 79

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viii Contents Anthropometry and personal space 83 Effectiveness and cost-effectivness 84 Research directions 86 Summary 86 Essays and exercises87 4 Static work: Design for standing and seated workers Fundamental aspects of standing and sitting 90 An ergonomic approach to workstation design 96 Design for standing workers 103 Design for seated workers 107 Worksurface design 110 Visual display units 112 Guidelines for the design of static work 113 Effectiveness and cost-effectivness 116 Research directions 118 Summary 119 Essays and...
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