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Types of motivation:

• The main types of motivation are:

• Biological: hunger, thirst, safety, reproduction
• Achievement
• Belonging

I. Biological motivation:

•The activity of biological systems for maintaining survival are explained in terms of homeostasis

• Homeostatic systems are designed to maintain a steady state through feedback regulatorymechanisms (e.g. body temperature)


• Triggered by variations in blood chemistry – low glucose, high insulin

Some sensors in liver and stomach

• Body weight maintained at a set point(see the fat rat)

• Set point maintained by the hypothalamus (also controls thirst and regulates metabolism and hydration)

• Lateral hypothalamic lesions produce aphasia (weight loss)

•Ventramedial hypothalamic lesions produce hyperaphagia (weight gain)

• Damage to hypothalamus can produce adipsia (no drinking) or poly dipsia (excessive drinking)

Dieting – cycles of weightloss and weight gain

Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia

• Nervosa refers to this being a nervous system disorder

• Anorexia is defined as body weight 15% below the normal

• Conditioncharacterized by emaciated body, depression, negative body image

• 9/10 cases occur in females and surfaces during adolescence

• Bulimia (binging and purging behaviour) is far morecommon that Anorexia (Princes Dianna)

• Half of Anorexics are also Bulimic

• Bulimia is easier to hide than Bulimia

Causal factors

• Anorexic – often families are competition, highachieving, protective

• Bulimia – often families are alcoholic, obese, depressive

• There is a genetic contribution but it is considered small

• Cultural influences areconsiderable

o Fat is ugly (other less affluent cultures often think of fat a s beautiful)
o Stereotypes of beauty - Barbie adjusted to life scale would have dimensions of 32 – 16 – 29...
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