After the relative peace during the nineteenth century, the rivalry between European powers exploded in 1914, when the First World War began. On one side were Germany, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire (the Central Powers), while in the other side were Serbia and the Triple Entente - the coalition of France, Britain and Russia, to which Italy would join him in 1915 and the UnitedStates in 1917. Despite the defeat of Russia in 1917 (the war was a major cause of the Russian Revolution, culminating in the formation of the Soviet Union), the Entente finally got the win in the fall of 1918.
Due the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the victors imposed harsh conditions on Germany and recognized the new states (such as Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia established in CentralEurope with territories belonging to Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Russian Empire, taking based on the alleged self-determination. In the following decades, fear of communism and the economic depression of 1929-33 caused the rise of extremist governments - Fascist or Nazi - in Italy (1922), Germany (1933), Spain ( after a civil war that ended in 1939) and in other countries such as Hungary.Since 1936 the future belligerents of Europe in World War II begin to deal directly or indirectly in the context of the Spanish Civil War. On 25 October the Italian Foreign Minister, held a visit to the Nazi Germany that led to the Axis Pact of Rome-Berlin. The agreement consolidated the positions of Germany and Italy against Britain and France; it was the previous chapter of the WWII.
RISE OFTHE FASCIMS
One of the tragic consequences of the First World War was the degradation of liberal and democratic ideals. The states were once induced to believe that the truth was on the authoritarian ideals. They were advocates of the Entente and they proclaimed the holy war in defense of human rights and the end of the militarism and "irresponsible government." The war itself appeared to haveachieved some of these values. Not only the military had been virtually destroyed in the conquered nations, also the list of European republics grew significantly with the addition of countries such as Austria, Germany, Poland, Finland, Turkey and Czechoslovakia, transformed into republics, and absolutist Russia seemed to have yielded to the liberal polity. However, did not take a long time, beforethese great visions of democratic progress revealed what they were in reality, showing that they were illusions. The defeated nations began to forget the value of freedom and eventually succumb to the power of a false strong government in which they thought that they would find a way to escape what they considered their slave. But democracy and freedom were not too safe even in the victoriousnations. The horrific years of tragic struggle disrupted the economic order of nations, the governments of Britain and France were shocked by the consequences. Furthermore, chaos and hardship resulting from war produced the collapse of the liberal regime in Russia and prepared the way for the triumph of fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany.
POLITICAL CONSECUENCES OF THE WAR
Europe has lostglobal power that kept the war. In fact, was born a "bipolarity" of power embodied by two superpowers: USA and U.R.S.S. Some monarchies gave way to republican regimes: such cases of Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, Romania and Bulgaria. The "Communist world" spread its influence over Eastern Europe and the Balkans. It raised a new ideological conflict: on one side communists on the other Westerndemocracies. Was born the "nuclear age" and, gradually, was imposing a new "balance of terror".
The differences and differing views among nations did not avoid finding a formula to analyze the relations between the countries.
When the war finished (and the Axis defeat was close), the Allies determined to integrate an international agency to strengthen peace and cooperation among nations.
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