Julián Abad Hidalgo
Nowadays, we see Human Rights like something sure. We know that they exist and we claim for its observance but this has not always been a reality. Human Rights appeared few time ago as the result of a law evolution. One of the events which took place and sped up this evolution was Nuremberg's Trial.
II World war, ended in 1945, was finished with the allies'victory. The consequence the war left was the desire of justice against those who committed horrible crimes under Hitler's orders. That was the year in which started the processes to condemn all the people who had killed millions of Jewish during the war. (www.laguia200.com/alemania/los-juicios-de-nuremberg [Access on January 11, 2012])
Nüremberg’s Trials are a group of jurisdictional processesstarted by the allies nations, winners at the end of the II World war. There were sanctioned the different responsibilities of leaders, officials and helpers of the nationalsocialism of Adolf Hitler in the different crimes against humanity committed in name of the III German Reich since 1 September of 1939 until May 1945.
Among the trials which took place in Nüremberg between 1945 and 1946, themost relevant and famous one is known as Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal (IMT). This one started in 20 November 1945 against 24 high officials of Nazi government who were captured alive.
The second set of trials of lesser war criminals was conducted under Control Council Law No. 10 at the US Nuremberg Military Tribunals (NMT); among them were alsoincluded the Doctors' Trial and the Judges' Trial. The crimes that were judged there were a development that would be used by the UN after the creation in 1998 of a permanent international criminal court and in the jurisprudence's definition of war crimes, crime against humanity and crimes against peace.
There were 4800 requests of singles processes but only 611 took place. They were classified likeno criminals associations (people who belong to the government and politicians) and criminals associations (like Gestapo or SS).
Doctors' Trial was against 24 doctors who worked in concentration camps killing people, practicing experiments and doing sterilizations against their enemies and civilians.
Judges' Trial was against 16 lawyers and judges who established the legal unit of the regime.They applied law against Jewish as death penalty. All the condemned were killed by the gibbet. (www.wikipedia.com [Accessed on January 11, 2012]).
Fifty years after these criminals were judged we keep on talking about this important process, but we have to know the reason why these trials took place and how to give them legitimacy. The processes are fully transcribed on paper so that everyonecould read about what happened there. However, it is too long even to be summarized. We can find why in the London Agreement (August, 1945) and in Court's Tribunal, approved in the same conference of London. The processes' development, including theirs process' rules and all the legal argumentation started in November 20, 1945 and ended in October 1, 1946 with the sentence.
But why is thisprocess so important? How is this process related with Human rights? These trials closed an age, an opened a new one. Nuremberg's Trials created a lot of precedents to our present international law, to our present Human Rights.
In Nuremberg, the allies’ judges created the base of a lot of rights that at the present time we see like something obvious. Wars are these periods in which more Humans rightsare violated and, it is a reason why Nuremberg courts established the concept of crimes that can never happen obviously including war periods. There were three kinds of crimes that were defined and applied:
〉 Crimes against peace: Practice an unjustified war against law.
〉 War crimes: Behavior’s faults in war.
〉 Crimes against humanity: deaths, exterminations, slavery and some others...
Leer documento completo
Regístrate para leer el documento completo.