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camuflage *FM 20-3

Field Manual No. 20-3

Headquarters Department of the Army Washington, DC, 30 August 1999

FM 20-3 CAMOUFLAGE, CONCEALMENT, AND DECOYS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE CHAPTER BASICS Doctrinal Considerations 1
Responsibilities Priorities Training Other Considerations

CHAPTER THREAT Doctrine 2
Organization Data Collection Sensor Systems CCD Versus Threat SensorsCHAPTER FUNDAMENTALS Section I — Principles 3
Avoiding Detection Identifying the Threat Avoiding Detection by Routine Surveillance DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. *This publication supersedes FM 20-3, 14 November 1990.

Taking Countermeasures Employing Realistic CCD Minimizing Movement Using Decoys Avoiding Operational Patterns Applying RecognitionFactors Site Selection CCD Discipline Section II — Techniques and Materials Techniques Tests and Evaluations Natural Conditions Data Sources Materials

CHAPTER OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS Preparations 4
Battle

CHAPTER OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS Preparations 5
Survivability Positions and Obstacles Battle

CHAPTER HIGH-VALUE TARGETS Section I — CCD Planning 6
Plans Objective Planning Process Section II— Fixed Installations Concept Command Posts Supply and Water Points Army Aviation Sites Section III — Relocatable Units Mobility and CCD Built-In Capabilities

CHAPTER SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTS Desert 7
Snow-Covered Areas Urban Terrain

APPENDI

METRIC CONVERSION CHART

X A. APPENDI X B. GUIDELINES FOR TACTICAL STANDING OPERATING PROCEDURES
Content Commanders' Responsibilities FratricideAPPENDI X C.

CAMOUFLAGE REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES
Lightweight Camouflage Screen System Supplemental Camouflage Vehicle Camouflage Training

APPENDI X D.

INDIVIDUAL CAMOFLAGE, CONCEALMENT, AND DECOYS
Materials Discipline Dispersal Considerations Employment

APPENDI X E. APPENDI X F. GLOSSARY

STANDARD CAMOUFLAUGE MATERIALS THE GENEVA EMBLEM AND CAMOUFLAGE OF MEDICAL FACILITIESBIBLIOGRAPHY AUTHORIZATION PAGE

Preface
This field manual (FM) is intended to help company-level leaders understand the principles and techniques of camouflage, concealment, and decoys (CCD). To remain viable, all units must apply CCD to personnel and equipment. Ignoring a threat's ability to detect friendly operations on the battlefield is shortsighted and dangerous. Friendly units enhance theirsurvivability capabilities if they are well versed in CCD principles and techniques. CCD is equal in importance to marksmanship, maneuver, and mission. It is an integral part of a soldier's duty. CCD encompasses individual and unit efforts such as movement, light, and noise discipline; litter control; dispersal; and deception operations. Each soldier's actions must contribute to the unit'soverall CCD posture to maximize effectiveness. Increased survivability is the goal of a CCD plan. A unit commander must encourage each soldier to think of survivability and CCD as synonymous terms. Training soldiers to recognize this correlation instills a greater appreciation of CCD values. A metric conversion chart is provided in Appendix A. The proponent of this publication is HQ TRADOC. Sendcomments and recommendations on Department of the Army (DA) Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) directly to Commandant, United States Army Engineer School (USAES), ATTN: ATSEDOT-DD, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri 65473-6650. This publication implements Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 2931, Orders for the Camouflage of the Red Cross and Red Crescent on Land in TacticalOperations. Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.

Chapter 1

Basics
CCD is the use of materials and techniques to hide, blend, disguise, decoy, or disrupt the appearance of military targets and/or their backgrounds. CCD helps prevent an enemy from detecting or identifying friendly troops, equipment, activities, or installations....
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