Parts of a speech

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  • Publicado : 9 de octubre de 2010
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Parts of Speech
NOUNS:
A noun is often defined as a word which names a person, place or thing. 
Examples: boy, river, friend, Mexico, triangle, day, school, truth, university, idea, John F. Kennedy, movie, aunt, vacation, eye, dream, flag, teacher, class, grammar.
John F. Kennedy is a noun because it is the name of a person; Mexico is a noun because it is the name of a place; and boy is anoun because it is the name of a thing.
Nouns are divided in 2 groups:
-proper nouns
-common nouns. 
Proper nouns are nouns which begin with a capital letter because it is the name of a specific or particular person place or thing. 
Examples: Mexico, John F. Kennedy, Atlantic Ocean, February, Monday, New York City, Susan, Maple Street, Burger King.
If you see a word beginning with acapital letter in the middle of a sentence, it is probably a proper noun.  Most nouns are common nouns and do not begin with a capital letter.
Many nouns have a special plural form if there is more than one.  For example, we say one book but two books.  Plurals are usually formed by adding an -s (books) or -es (boxes) but some plurals are formed in different ways (child - children, person - people,mouse - mice, sheep - sheep).

VERBS:
A verb is often defined as a word which shows action or state of being. The verb is the heart of a sentence - every sentence must have a verb. Recognizing the verb is often the most important step in understanding the meaning of a sentence.
Examples:
-The dog bit the man.
- The man is sitting on a chair.
Unlike most of the other parts of speech, verbschange their form.  Sometimes endings are added (learn - learned) and sometimes the word itself becomes different (teach-taught).  The different forms of verbs show different meanings related to such things as:
Tense: past, present, future
Person: first person, second person, third person
Number: singular, plural
Voice: active, passive
Verbs are also often accompanied by verb-like wordscalled modals (may, could, should, etc.) and auxiliaries (do, have, will, etc.) to give them different meanings.
One of the most important things about verbs is their relationship to time. Verbs tell if something has already happened, if it will happen later, or if it is happening now.  For things happening now, we use the present tense of a verb; for something that has already happened, we usethe past tense; and for something that will happen later, we use the future tense. Some examples of verbs in each tense are in the chart below:
 
Present | Past | Future |
look | looked | will look |
move | moved | will move |
talk | talked | will talk |

There are 2 groups of verbs:
-irregular verbs
-regular verbs
An irregular verb is one that does not take the “–ed” ending forthe Past Simple and Past Participle forms. Some irregular verbs do not change; put put put, while others change completely; buy bought bought, etc.
Irregular verbs fall into 5 categories:
1. Base Form
2. Past Simple
3. Past Participle
4. 3rd Person Singular
5. Present Participle / Gerund

Base Form | Simple Past Tense | Past Participle |
awake | awoke | awoken |
be |was, were | been |
bear | bore | born |
beat | beat | beat |
become | became | become |
begin | began | begun |
bend | bent | bent |
beset | beset | beset |
bet | bet | bet |
bid | bid/bade | bid/bidden |
bind | bound | bound |
bite | bit | bitten |
bleed | bled | bled |
blow | blew | blown |
break | broke | broken |
breed | bred | bred |
bring | brought | brought |broadcast | broadcast | broadcast |
build | built | built |
burn | burned/burnt | burned/burnt |
burst | burst | burst |
buy | bought | bought |
cast | cast | cast |
catch | caught | caught |
choose | chose | chosen |
cling | clung | clung |
come | came | come |
cost | cost | cost |
creep | crept | crept |
cut | cut | cut |
deal | dealt | dealt |
dig | dug | dug |...
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